The Entrance Visa, Machtiging tot Voorlopig Verblijf (MVV) allows you entry to the Netherlands. Not all nationalities need to apply for this type of visa; check the Residence Wizard of the IND to see if the MVV applies to you. If so, your HR officer or the Staff Immigration Office will submit the application on your behalf. The MVV will be issued by the Dutch Embassy in your current country of residence as a sticker in your passport.
After entering the country you will need a residence permit (VVR) to obtain lawful residency. Application for the VVR goes through the university as well.