mw. prof. dr. J.J. (Julia) Noordegraaf
Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen
Capaciteitsgroep Media & Cultuur
1012 XT Amsterdam
As of 1 September 2012 I have been appointed Professor of Heritage and Digital Culture at the University of Amsterdam's Faculty of Humanities. In this role, I focus on bringing together and promoting research about the reuse and meaning of digital heritage, as well as the impact of digitization on the perception and appreciation of cultural heritage. My own future research will focus on digital source criticism (oriented towards search engines and heritage databases) and the preservation of digital art.
This position brings together two of my previous areas of expertise: museum history and theory and media heritage. I obtained a PhD from Erasmus University Rotterdam on the history of museum presentation in the visualculture of the 19th and 20th centuries in 2004, and have since then remained interested in the specific challenges and manifestations of exhibiting cultural heritage. After my appointment at UvA in 2003 as director of the international, professional MA programme Preservation and Presentation of the Moving Image I shifted my research to the preservation and presentation of audiovisual and digital heritage. I have just edited a book on media art preservation and exhibition ( Preserving and Exhibiting Media Art: Challenges and Perspectives , AUP, 2013 ) and am completing a second monograph ( Performing the Archive : Tracing Audiovisual Heritage in the Digital Age , see under research) in which I study the impact of digitization on the epistemology of the audiovisual archive. I (co-)supervise(d) PhD projects on the exhibition and preservation of media art, the role of genealogy in bible texts and film, digitization and film historiography, the preservation and exhibition of film sound, and access to digital audiovisual archives.
In 2010 I worked as a Fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study (NIAS) in Wassenaar. I am affiliated with the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Institute of Culture and History, the Netherlands Research School for Media Studies, the Huizinga Institute of Cultural History, the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Analysis, and the European Network for Cinema and Media Studies. At present I am member of the Network for the Conservation of Contemporary Art Research (NeCCAR).
Fields of interest
- Audiovisual heritage: archiving and exhibiting film, RTV, media art
- Digitization and Cultural Heritage
- Digital Humanities
- Digital Source Criticism
- Media, archives, memory, trauma
- Museum history and theory
Curating the Moving Image
(for students in the MA Preservation and Presentation of the Moving Image) This course focuses on the theory and practice of presenting audiovisual media to a public. Students learn to critically reflect on the institutional contexts in which audiovisual media are being collected, preserved and made accessible to audiences in the form of programmes, exhibitions, compilation films, DVD's, websites, television programmes, etc. Besides, they learn to reflect on the specific demands of presenting moving images and sound (time based nature, preservation demands, technical requirements, copyrights and distribution rights, etc). Finally, they learn to analyse various forms of presentation and curate a specific presentation of audiovisual material.
Theory Archives and Media
(for students in the MA Preservation and Presentation ofthe Moving Image, with dr.Marie-Aude Baronian) This course aims to introduce students to different theoretical perspectives on the media archive and learn how to analyse specific case studies from those perspectives. In recent years the archive has become a major trope in the humanities. The archive is being recognized as a central cultural phenomenon that plays a crucial role in how we see ourselves as historically and socially situated and mediated subjects. As a space that 'documents' our existence the archive determines how we culturally situate ourselves between past, present and future. Authors from various disciplines have studied the archive in relation to notions of history, memory, forgetting, identity politics, power and postmodernism, amongst others. During the lectures various texts will be discussed that explore the political, historical, ethical, aesthetical, juridical and philosophical aspects of (audiovisual) archiving.
Tutorial The Audiovisual Memory of (In)Justice
(for students in the Research Master MediaStudies, 2006, 2007 and 2009) In this tutorial we investigate the role of audiovisual heritage in relation to cases of severe injustice, like genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and their adjudication in international criminal tribunals. In particular, it aims to analyse the dynamic role of audiovisual heritage in the documentation and reconstruction of, and reconciliation with, such conflicts. We will focus on the creation of audiovisual documentation, the archiving of this material and its reuse in reconstructing and remembering the traumatic events. Possible themes for the end paper are: documentary footage as evidence in court, fiction films as 'prosthetic memories' of traumatic events, the reuse of court session recordings on radio and TV, or the use of streaming video to documentcrimesandraiseattention to them. Students participating in this tutorial also have the opportunity to collaborate on the programming and organisationof an international symposium on Memory, Archives and Justice, that will take place in November 2007 as part of the 'Cinema & Justice' programme of the Cinemathèque in The Hague, Stroom Centre for Contemporary Art, the French Embassy, international tribunals, NGO's, and the Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Analyse Film en Visuele Cultuur (Analysis of Film and Visual Culture)
(seminars taught in theBA Media and Culture, in 2004, 2005 and 2007) De student bouwt voort op de kennis die is opgedaan in de propedeuse van de klassieke analysemethoden uit het filmstudiesveld en bekwaamt zich in het zelfstandig uitvoeren van beeld- en geluidanalyses. De student analyseert en vergelijkt de verhalende structuur en stilistische en esthetische aspecten van verschillende films. Uit klassiek filmwetenschappelijk werk worden de belangrijkste methoden gedestilleerd. De nadruk ligt op het vervolgens actief toepassen van deze analysemethoden op beeld en geluid. Ook komt de rol van de historische en culturele context in productie, receptie en interpretatie van de film aan bod. In de werkgroepen voeren studenten opdrachten uit en doen hiervan schriftelijk en mondeling verslag.
Seminar Audiovisual Sources
(course taught in the MA Programme Preservation and Presentation of the Moving Image, second semester 2004 and 2005) This course aims to provide insight into the various aspects involved in working with audiovisual sources, in particular with the purpose of presenting them to a public. At the end of the course, students should be able to find audiovisual source material on their own and to consciously use this material in various types of presentations. In addition, students learn to reflect on the processes of identification, selection, application and reception of audiovisual sources. Further, students are introduced to possible problems with regards to the use of audiovisual source material, such as conservation demands, limited accessibility and/or legal restrictions. The theoretical and practical findings result in a short compilation film, that students will present and defend at the end of the course.
Tutorial Le Regard, L'Image
(with dr. Sophie Berrebi, for the Research MA's Cultural Analysis and Media and Culture, second semester 2004-2005) The interdisciplinary project Le Regard, L'Image: Dekolonisatie Verbeeld investigates the role of images in the memories, histories and imagination of decolonisation. Bringing together different cultural contexts and theoretical perspectives and addressing both broad and specialised audiences, Le Regard, L'Image consists of a contemporary art exhibition and special commission, a film program and a conference that will take place simultaneously in different locations across Amsterdam. It will be prolonged by a publication. The tutorial consists of an in-depth investigation of the three central themes for the conference: Images of decolonisation, Decolonising the image, New images, new identities. Students learn how to find and discuss academic texts related to those themes. Besides, the aim is to get an overview of related projects in the field of photography, film and museum exhibitions.
SupervisionofMA theses on the following topics:
- The role of broadcasting companies in the financing of film productions: comparative research in the Netherlands and Flanders
- Presenting media in the museum: case study are the plans for the new museum of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (national broadcasting archive)
- Digital restoration practices in European film archives
- The impact of digital technologies on the role and place of the archivist in broadcasting archives
- The singing films of film tenor Joseph Schmidt: classification of the versions of his 1930s films and the relation between the multiple versions and the genre of tenor films
Work Placement Projects
Supervision of the following work placement projects (in the MA programme Preservation and Presentation of the Moving Image):
- Nitrate Identification and Digital Restoration at the Filmmuseum in Amsterdam
- Research and Description for BIRTH Project on Early Television at the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision
- Cataloguing and Describing Works by Cardena and Stansfield & Hooykaas at the Netherlands Media Art Institute Montevideo
- Developing Online Film Programme for the International Film Festival Rotterdam
- Research and Programme for Historical Cinema at the Amsterdam Municipal Archive
- Identification and Preservation Advice 35 mm Film Collection Institute for Military History
- Assistant-Programmer in the South-East Asia Eyes Programmeat the International Film Festival Rotterdam
- Research and Publicity for the Programme on Dutch Animation Filmmaker Gerrit van Dijk at the Filmmuseum in Amsterdam
- Assistant-Programmer in the Exploding Cinema Programme at theInternational Film Festival Rotterdam
- Digitisation of media art collection at V2, Institute for Unstable Media, Rotterdam
- Preservation of the Dutch experimental film collection at the Filmmuseum, Amsterdam
- Research on National Cinema and the Soviet-export collection at the Filmmuseum, Amsterdam
- Identification, selection, preservation advice and presentation ofamateur film at the Smalfilmmuseum, Hilversum
- Managing and assessing the cultural value of the audiovisual collection of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, The Hague
- Inventory and description of the private collection of visual artist Marina Abramovich, Amsterdam
- Preservation advice and restoration work, research on Asta Nielsen and preparation for DVD Frankfurt im Film at the Deutsches Filmmuseum,Frankfurt
- Assisting with sales and distributionat Fortissimo,Amsterdam
Performing the Archive
(Book project 2010-2011, partly written at NIAS) The proliferation of digital technologies has changed the way we perceive of and use audiovisual archives and their holdings. As Rick Prelinger, founder of the online collection archive.org recently pointed out, YouTube has become the standard of what people expect audiovisual archives to be - unlimited online access and activeuser participation have become crucial for an archive's visibility and public existence. Although the institutions still function as the principal gatekeepers - if only because of copyright restrictions -the emergence ofvirtualarchives and online portals is changing the relation between the keepers and users of audiovisual heritage. Every presentation adds new layers of meaning to the material and users are becoming experts, challenging the role of the archivist as principal expert on the knowledge the collection represents.
In this book I investigate the implicationsof this reframing of audiovisualheritageforthe epistemology of the archive. The aim is twofold: first, to provide insight into the consequences of reframing audiovisual heritage for the knowledge the objects represent and second, to propose a re-conceptualization of the audiovisual archive as a space that acknowledges the dynamic, changing meaning of its holdings. I will study a number of cases that demonstrate the various shifts in power and knowledge related to the displacement of audiovisual heritage, from virtual portals of film and television archives to the reuse of archival holdings by artists and filmmakers. The approach is archaeological in that the exploration of virtual portals and archives serves as a starting point for exploring earlier examples that had a similar effect, such as the reuse of colonial film in compilation films and multimedia installations. The theoretical framework comprises ideas from Film and New Media Studies on the meaning of audiovisual heritage, debates from Archival Studies on the power of the archive and studies from the field of Epistemology on the shifts in knowledge that the displacement of audiovisual heritage entails.
The Audiovisual Memory of (In)Justice
Interdisciplinary research project that investigates the role of audiovisual heritage in relation to cases of severe injustice, like genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. In particular, it aims to analyse the dynamic role of audiovisual heritage in the documentation and reconstruction of such conflicts and in the process of coming to terms with them. This dynamics is studied in three social spaces: that of the courtroom (the law), the archive (history) and the communities involved (memory). The dynamic role of audiovisual heritage is exemplified by its movements in time and space. The first stage is that of documenting the conflict, followed by a reconstruction of events on the basis of that documentation, with the final purpose of coming to termswiththe conflict. This movement in time is paralleled by a movement in space: first there is the trial of the crimes in court, followed by the collecting of the documentation of the events in the archive, with thepurpose of developing historical reflection on it. Finally, the conflict can find a place in public memory. It is our purpose to analyse the dynamic interaction between audiovisual heritage and the formation of cultural memory in each of these social spaces and at different moments in time.
Advertising film is the topic of an international project initiated by the University of Amsterdam/MA-programme Preservation & Presentation of the Moving Image, the European Association of Film Archives (ACE), and the Nederlands Filmmuseum. These institutions are the founders of the Network Audiovisual Archives and Education in which academic and archival institutes cooperate closely to better coordinate the needs of film archives and various archival programmes and training initiatives. The focus on the rather neglected film genre of advertising films allows us to explore and define the needs of archives and competences of future archivists in more detail. Provisionally defined as a rhetorical genre that aims to influence the opinion, attitude or behaviour of its audiences (either by changing or by continuing it) the term covers a wide range of films. Besides commercials for products, services or juridical persons, we alsoconsider their non-commercial equivalents (e.g. elections, government campaigns). Promotional, information, or propaganda films are also included. Furthermore, advertising is often camouflaged, either wholly (posing as a non-rhetorical film, e.g. a story film) or partly (as inproduct placement). Advertising films alsochallengethe notion of archival entities, as the films are often tied in with longer and/or wider (mixed-media) campaigns. Finally, from an internationalviewpoint, advertising is an 'unstable' genre, with variations inimage, montage, or language. The project intends to generate knowledge about the genre in order to be able to better classify, explain, and asses the cultural value and importance of the many advertising film collections and thus better prepare (future) archivists for the specific problems and issues this corpus films can pose in terms of collection policies (e.g. selection criteria), cataloguing, preservation and restoration, programming and access.
Current initiatives of this ongoing project include: organization of the 5th international workshop at the Nederlands Filmmuseum: The Images that Changed Your Life: Advertising Films (Amsterdam , 19-21 November 2009); a panel at the 7th Orphan Film Symposium: City Promotion Films: From travelogues to YouTube (New York, April 2010); an anthology on Advertising Film (book and DVD, end of 2010).
Partners include: Archivio Nazionale Cinema d'Impresa at Ivrea/Turin, BFI London, Deutsche Kinemathek Berlin, DIF/Deutsches Filmmuseum Frankfurt, European Association of Film Archives (ACE), Lund University (Mats Jönsson), National Library of Sweden/Audiovisual Department, NECS (the European Network for Cinema and Media Studies),Nederlands Filmmuseum, Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Stockholm University (Patrick Vonderau), Universiteit van Amsterdam (Julia Noordegraaf and Charles Forceville), University of Gothenburg (Mats Björkin), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Bert Hogenkamp).
Strategies of Display: Museum Presentation in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Visual Culture . Rotterdam: NAI Publishers/Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, 2004. Published version of my dissertation.
' Who Knows Television? Online Access and the Gatekeepers of Knowledge.' Critical Studies in Television: Scholarly Studies in Small Screen Fictions . Special issue 'Television Archives: Accessing TV History', eds. Lez Cooke and Robin Nelson, 5 (2010) 2: 1-19.
' Experiencing TV : The Screen Space of the Media Museum .' In Alice Autelitano, ed. The Cinematic Experience: Film, Contemporary Art, Museum . Pasian di Prato: Campanotto, 2010: 201-211 .
(with Elvira Pouw) 'Extended Family Films: Home Movies in the State Sponsored Archive' The Moving Image , 9 (Spring 2009) 1: 95-115.
' Facing Forward with found footage. Displacing colonial footage in Mother Dao and the work of Fiona Tan'. In Technologies of Memory in the Arts , eds. Liedeke Plate and Anneke Smelik. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2009: 172-187.
' Experiencing TV : De museale presentatie van een grensoverschrijdend medium.' Kunstlicht 29 (2008) 1/2: 10-16.
'Displacing the Colonial Archive: How Fiona Tan Shows Us "Things We Don't Know We Know."' In Mind the Screen: Media Concepts According to Thomas Elsaesser , eds. Jaap Kooijman, Patricia Pisters and Wanda Strauven. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008: 322-332.
'Indië in de achteruitkijkspiegel. Koloniaal archiefmateriaal in Moeder Dao en het werk van Fiona Tan.' Jong Holland. Beeldende kunst en visuele cultuur 21 (2005) 4: 24-32.
(metSophieBerrebi) 'Ten geleide'.Gastredactioneel. Jong Holland. Beeldende kunst en visuele cultuur 21 (2005) 4: 7.
'Een smalfilmcollectie van nationaal belang.' InMieke Lauwers en Bert Hogenkamp, ed. AudioVisueel . Jaarboek van de Stichting Archiefpublicaties no. 5, eds. Mieke Lauwers and Bert Hogenkamp, 2005: 42-52.
'De cultuur van het beeld.' Karakter: Tijdschrift van Wetenschap , 2 (2004) nr. 8: 12-14. (essay on visual studies departing from James Elkins' Visual Studies: a Skeptical Introduction )
'Tussen Boompjes en Boijmans: reisgidsen over Rotterdam in de 19de eeuw.' Spiegel Historiael 39 (2004)7/8: 324-329.
(with Marlite Halbertsma) 'Het karakter van de visuele cultuur van de negentiende eeuw.' De Negentiende Eeuw 27 (2003) 2: 67-73.
'De opkomst van het museum in de 'spectaculaire' negentiende eeuw.' De Negentiende Eeuw 27 (2003) 2: 121-136.
'From civilising instruments to service guides: Travel guides as intermediaries between the Boymans museum in Rotterdam and its audience, 1849-1935.' Trends and strategies in the arts and cultural industries. 39 Eds. S. Janssen, M. Halbertsma, T. IJdens and K. Ernst. Rotterdam: Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn & Co's, 2001: 211-219.
'De inscriptie van tijd in het kunstmuseum: Museum Boijmans en het Haags Gemeentemuseum in 1935.' Feit & fictie: tijdschrift voor de geschiedenis van de representatie 5 (2001) 3: 50-61.
'Mining the HomeMovie: Excavations in Histories and Memories. Karen L. Ishizuka and Patricia R. Zimmermann, eds. Berkeley etc.:University of CaliforniaPress,2008.' Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis 11 (2008) 2: 104-107.
'Privat-Vorstellung: Heimkino in Deutschland vor 1945. Martina Roepke. Hildesheim , Olms, 2006.' Historical Journal for Film, Radio and Television 28 (March 2008) 1: 105-107.
'Martina Roepke. Privat-Vorstellung: Heimkino in Deutschland vor 1945. Hildesheim etc. (Olms) 2006'. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis 10 (2007) 2: 135-137.
'Christian Delage. La Vérité par l'image: De Nuremberg au procès Milosevic'. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis 9 (2006) 2: 112-114.
- J. Noordegraaf (2014). Digitization. In M. Kelly (Ed.), Encyclopedia of aesthetics. - 2nd ed. - Vol. 2 (pp. 401-404). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf & A. Noël de Tilly (2013). Epilogue. In J. Noordegraaf, C.G. Saba, B. Le Maître & V. Hediger (Eds.), Preserving and exhibiting media art: challenges and perspectives (Framing film) (pp. 407-413). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf (2013). Case study: The conservation of media art at Tate: an interview with Pip Laurenson (Head of Time-based Media at Tate). In J. Noordegraaf, C.G. Saba, B. Le Maître & V. Hediger (Eds.), Preserving and exhibiting media art: challenges and perspectives (Framing film) (pp. 282-303). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf (2013). Part II: Analysis, documentation, archiving: introduction. In J. Noordegraaf, C.G. Saba, B. Le Maître & V. Hediger (Eds.), Preserving and exhibiting media art: challenges and perspectives (Framing film) (pp. 123-125). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf (2013). Introduction. In J. Noordegraaf, C.G. Saba, B. Le Maître & V. Hediger (Eds.), Preserving and exhibiting media art: challenges and perspectives (Framing film) (pp. 11-20). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). «Dynarchive» et mémoire : quel(s) savoir(s) pour les archives numériques ? E-Dossiers de l’Audiovisuel, juin 2012.[go to publisher's site]
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). Iterating archival footage and the memory of war. In A. Bordina, S. Campanini & A. Mariani (Eds.), L'archivio: FilmForum 2011: XVIII Convegno internazionale di studi sul cinema = The archive: XVIII International film studies conference, University of Udine (pp. 265-272). Udine: Forum.
- J. Noordegraaf (2011). Crowdsourcing television's past: the state of knowledge in digital archives. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis, 14(2), 108-120.
- J. Noordegraaf (2010). Who knows television? Online access and the gatekeepers of knowledge. Critical studies in television, 5(2), 1-19.
- J. Noordegraaf (2009). 'Facing Forward' with found footage: displacing colonial footage in 'Mother Dao' and the work of Fiona Tan. In L. Plate & A. Smelik (Eds.), Technologies of memory in the arts (pp. 172-187). Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan. http://dare.uva.nl/document/171064
- J.J. Noordegraaf & E. Pouw (2009). Extended family films: home movies in the state-sponsored archive. The moving image, 9(1), 83-103.
- J. Noordegraaf (2008). Displacing the colonial archive: how Fiona Tan shows us "things we don't know we know''. In J. Kooijman, P. Pisters & W. Strauven (Eds.), Mind the screen: media concepts according to Thomas Elsaesser (pp. 322-332). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
- J. Noordegraaf (2008). From the archive to the gallery: displacing colonial footage in the work of Fiona Tan. Cinéma & Cie, 10, 105-113.[go to publisher's site]
- J. Noordegraaf (2013). De cultuur van het beeld. In J. Tollebeek, J.C. Verstraete & E. van de Perre (Eds.), Onweerstaanbaar veranderlijk: over de cultuur van de wetenschap (pp. 19-24). Leuven: Lipsius Leuven.
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). Art case interviews: professor dr. Julia Noordegraaf: in conversation with Michel Dewilde, January 2012. In W. Meuris (Ed.), FEAK: the foundation for exhibiting art & knowledge (pp. 45, 47, 53-54). Brugge: ABL Publishers. http://dare.uva.nl/document/476116
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). Art case interviews: professeur dr. Julia Noordegraaf: en conversation avec Michel Dewilde, janvier 2012. In W. Meuris (Ed.), FEAK: the foundation for exhibiting art & knowledge (pp. 125-127). Brugge: ABL Publishers. http://dare.uva.nl/document/476118
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). Art case interviews: professor dr. Julia Noordegraaf: in gesprek met Michel Dewilde, January 2012. In W. Meuris (Ed.), FEAK: the foundation for exhibiting art & knowledge (pp. 113-115). Brugge: ABL Publishers. http://dare.uva.nl/document/476117
- J. Noordegraaf (2010). Experiencing TV: the screen space of the media museum. In A. Autelitano (Ed.), The cinematic experience: film, contemporary art, museum = film, arte contemporanea, museo (Zeta cinema, 24) (pp. 201-211). Campanotto: Pasian di Prato (UD). http://dare.uva.nl/document/199421
- J.J. Noordegraaf (2009). Performing Archival Material Online. In M. Gerritzen & S. Krier (Eds.), Me You and Everyone we Know is a Curator (pp. 52-55). Breda: Graphic Design Museum.
- J. Noordegraaf (2008). [Review of the book Privat-Vorstellung: Heimkino in Deutschland vor 1945]. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 28(1), 105-107.[go to publisher's site]
- J. Noordegraaf (2008). Experiencing TV: de museale presentatie van een grensoverschrijdend medium. Kunstlicht, 29(1/2), 10-16.
- J. Noordegraaf (2008). [Review of the book Mining the home movie: excavations in histories and memories]. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis, 11(2), 104-107.
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). [Review of the book Processing the past: contesting authority in history and the archives]. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis, 15(2), 86-88.[go to publisher's site]
- J. Noordegraaf (2012). Training for the future of audiovisual preservation I: Preservation and presentation of the moving image at the University of Amsterdam. AV Insider, 1, 17-19.[go to publisher's site]
- J.J. Noordegraaf (2006). [Review of the book La Vérité par l'image: De Nuremberg au procès Milosevic]. Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis, 9(2), 112-114.
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