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mw. prof. dr. C. (Christina) Eckes

  • Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid
    Europees recht
  • Bezoekadres
    REC A
    Nieuwe Achtergracht 166  
  • Postadres:
    Postbus  1030
    1000 BA  Amsterdam
    T: 0205258513


Christina Eckes is professor of European law at the University of Amsterdam and director of the Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance (ACELG). 

Her research interests are integration and disintegration dynamics in EU law. In her current research she focusses on the internal constitutional consequences of the European Union's external actions and the legal limits to European integration.

In 2009 she published the monograph EU Counter-Terrorist Policies and Fundamental Rights - The Case of Individual Sanctions (Oxford University Press), which is the leading text on this topic. In 2011 Christina Eckes was awarded a personal research grant by the Dutch Scientific Organization (NWO) for her research project entitled:  Outside-In: Tracing the Imprint of the European Union's External Actions on Its Constitutional Landscape. She spent the academic year 2012/2013 as Emile Noël Fellow-in-residence at New York University and March to June 2014 as a visiting researcher at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin.

Christina Eckes joined the University of Amsterdam in September 2008. Previously, she completed her PhD research at the Centre of European Law at King's College London, which was fully funded by a university scholarship and worked as lecturer in EU law at the University of Surrey, UK (2007-2008). She also holds an LL.M (2003) from the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, and passed First State Examination in Germany (2002).




EU Counter-Terrorist Policies and Fundamental Rights: The Case of Individual Sanctions

see reviews:  Luke A.R. Butler, European Law Review 2010, p. 739; Martin Scheinin, Yearbook of European Law 2010, p. 539; Cian Murphy, European Human Rights Law Review 2011, p. 120; Maria Tzanou, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 2124; Iris Canor, Leiden Journal of International Law 2012, p. 243. 

Oxford University Press, 2009

Crime within the Area of Freedom Security and Justice: A European Public Order 

edited together with Theodore Konstadinides

see reviews: Elaine Fahey, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 1737; Wanni Teo, Yearbook of European Law 2012, p. 1.

Cambridge University Press, 2011

 Selected Articles

  • ‘Common Foreign and Security Policy: the Consequences of the Court’s Extended Jurisdiction’, 22(4)European Law Journal 2016.
  • ‘The Common Foreign and Security Policy and other EU policies: A Difference in Nature?’, 20(4) European Foreign Affairs Review 2015.
  • ‘The Reflexive Relationship between Internal and External Sovereignty’, 18(1) Irish Journal of European Law 2015.
  • ‘EU Restrictive Measures Against Natural and Legal Persons: From Counter-Terrorist to Third Country Sanctions’, 51(3) Common Market Law Review 2014.
  • ‘How the European Parliament’s Participation in International Relations Affects the Deep Tissue of the EU’s Power Structures’, 12(4) International Journal of Constitutional Law (ICON) 2014.
  • 'EU Accession to the ECHR: Between Autonomy and Adaptation', Modern Law Review 2013.

Research Interests

  • EU institutional and constitutional law
  • External relations of the European Union
  • European human rights law
  • Philosophical fundamentals of EU law
  • Judicial review in a pluricontextual setting
  • Restrictive measures against private individuals
  • EU counter-terrorism


  • Principles and Foundations of European Union Law (LL.M.)
  • European Constitutional Law (LL.M)
  • EU Criminal Law (LL.M)
  • EU Foreign Relations Law (LL.M)
  • Europees Recht (LL.B)


Co-Supervision of PhD Researchers

  • Anniek de Ruijter, ‘A Silent Revolution: The Expansion of EU Power in the Field of Human Health: A rights-based analysis of EU health law and policy’ (2009-2015)
  • Vigjilenca Abazi, ‘Secrecy and Oversight in the European Union: The Law and Practice of Classified Information’ (2011-2015)
  • Kathalijne Buitenweg, ‘The Quest for Representative Autonomy by the European Parliament’ (2013-2016)
  • Chris Koedooder, ‘Ever Closer Economic and Monetary Union’ (since 2012)
  • Dominique Barnhoorn, 'EU data protection and external relations' (since 2017)

Outside-In: Tracing The Imprint of the European Union’s External Actions on Its Constitutional Landscape


My hypothesis is that the European Union‘s intensified external actions have implications for its delicate internal constitutional structures. Indeed, some of the Union’s external actions could profoundly change its mode of operation. Core values under EU law, as well as established organizational principles, might come under pressure. Within the complexity of the EU legal order such consequences could be exponentially more destabilizing than within a state structure (that appears monolithic in comparison).


The European Union’s ability to conduct its own external relations is not contested as a matter of principle. It is for instance the only non-state actor that participates in international functional regimes on equal footing with states. At the same time, it is under constant pressure, both from the outside and from the inside. Under international law, only states are vested with ‘original rights’ and hence fully autonomous subjects of international law. And even though other international actors accept that the Union takes at times a state-like position, international law classifies it as an international organization. As an international organisation, the Union remains seen as exercising delegated rights and at least partially as penetrable in that behind the organization there are still the Member States as the ultimate point of reference. This is the outside pressure. The inside pressure is the Member States’ explicit intention to remain visible – next to, behind, and in front of the Union. This, for instance, becomes apparent in the explicitly codified parallel nature of CFSP competences, and in the Member States’ preference for mixed agreements.


The EU’s foreign policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty goes beyond a supportive or supplementary character. The objectives set out in the EU Treaties require the EU to take the role of an international actor separate from its Member States. At the same time, the basic assumption remains that European external actions develop in a supportive parallelism to the EU’s internal policies. This has also for long been the position of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). This research project aims to demonstrate that the opposite can also be true, namely that the Union’s participation in international relations reflects back onto its internal constitutional landscape. The broader underlying questions are: When a complex and compound political construct, such as the European Union, acts under international law, does this automatically entail a federalizing or centralizing effect through ’unintentional constitutionalization of power-sharing’ and ‘the routinization of practices’? What impact has the fact that the EU is increasingly given extensive rights to act as an almost state-like actor under international law?


The aim is to identify and discuss the internal implications of the EU’s external actions in the light of sovereignty. The research is planned as a theoretical inquiry illustrate with detailed empirical studies in to EU law.



First Publications

- C. Eckes, ‘How the European Parliament’s Participation in International Relations Affects the Deep Tissue of the EU’s Power Structures’, 12(4) International Journal of Constitutional Law (ICON) 2014, pages 904-929

- C. Eckes, ‘EU Accession to the ECHR: Between Autonomy and Adaptation’, 76(2) Modern Law Review 2013, pages 254–285

- C. Eckes, ‘Environmental Policy “Outside-In”:  How the EU’s Engagement with International Environmental Law Curtails National Autonomy’, 13.11 German Law Journal 2012

- C. Eckes, ‘External Relations Law: How the Outside Shapes the Inside’ in: Diego Acosta Arcarazo & Cian C. Murphy (eds.), EU Security and Justice Law: After Lisbon and Stockholm (Hart, 2014)

- C. Eckes, ‘International, European and US Perspectives on the Negotiation and Adoption of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)’, Currents, International Trade Law Journal 2013, (together with Dr. Elaine Fahey and Dr. Machiko Kanetake)


  • Eckes, C. (2018). EU Powers under External Pressure: How the EU’s External Actions Alter its Internal Structures. Oxford University Press.
  • Eckes, C. (2018). Integrated Rights Protection in the European and International Context: Some Reflections about Limits and Consequences. In S. Garben, & I. Govaere (Eds.), Interfaces between European and International Law Hart Publishing.
  • Eckes, C. (2018). Mutual Trust and the Future of Fundamental Rights Protection in the EU’s Compound Legal Order. In L. Azoulai, N. Bhuta, & M. Cremona (Eds.), Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law Oxford University Press.
  • Eckes, C. (2018). The Law and Practice of EU Sanctions. In S. Blockmans, & P. Koutrakos (Eds.), Research Handbook on CFSP Edgar Elgar Publishing Ltd.
  • Eckes, C., & Wessel, R. (in press). The European Union from an International Perspective: Sovereignty, Statehood, and Special Treatment. In T. Tridimas, & R. Schütze (Eds.), The Oxford Principles of European Union Law - Volume 1: The European Union Legal Order (forthcoming) Oxford University Press.


  • Eckes, C. (2017). International Rulings and the EU Legal Order: Autonomy as Legitimacy? In M. Cremona, A. Thies, & R. A. Wessel (Eds.), The EU and Interntaional Dispute Settlement Hart Publishing.


  • Eckes, C. (2016). Common Foreign and Security Policy: The Consequences of the Court's Extended Jurisdiction. European Law Journal, 22(4), 492-518. DOI: 10.1111/eulj.12183  [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2015). The CSFP and Other EU Policies: A Difference in Nature? European Foreign Affairs Review, 20(4), 535-552. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2015). The reflexive relationship between internal and external sovereignty. Irish Journal of European Law, 18(1), 33-47. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2014). EU counter-terrorist sanctions: the questionable success story of criminal law in disguise. In C. King, & C. Walker (Eds.), Dirty assets: emerging issues in the regulation of criminal and terrorist assets (pp. 317-336). (Law, justice and power). Farnham: Ashgate. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2014). EU restrictive measures against natural and legal persons: from counterterrorist to third country sanctions. Common Market Law Review, 51(3), 869-905. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2014). External relations law: how the outside shapes the inside. In D. Acosta Arcarazo, & C. C. Murphy (Eds.), EU security and justice law: after Lisbon and Stockholm (pp. 186-206). (Modern studies in European law; No. 42). Oxford [etc.]: Hart Publishing. DOI: 10.5040/  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2014). How the European Parliament's participation in international relations affects the deep tissue of the EU's power structures. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 12(4), 904-929. DOI: 10.1093/icon/mou067  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2014). The Court of Justice's participation in judicial discourse: theory and practice. In M. Cremona, & A. Thies (Eds.), The European Court of Justice and external relations law: constitutional challenges (pp. 183-210). (Modern studies in European law). Oxford: Hart Publishing. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2013). EU Accession to the ECHR: Between Autonomy and Adaptation. The Modern Law Review, 76(2), 254-285. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2230.12012  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). EU Anti-Terrorismus-Sanktionen als Extrembeispiel kooperativer Regelsetzung. Zeitschrift für Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik, 6(3), 345-356. DOI: 10.1007/s12399-013-0342-3  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). EU climate change policy: can the Union be just (and) green? In D. Kochenov, & F. Amtenbrink (Eds.), The European Union's shaping of the international legal order (pp. 191-214). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139519625.012  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). Epilogue: The Union, the world and counter-terrorism: how to normalize the extreme? In L. C. Ferreira‐Pereira, & B. Oliveira Martins (Eds.), The European Union's fight against terrorism: the CFSP and beyond London: Routledge. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). Individuals in a pluralist world: The implications of counterterrorist sanctions. Global Constitutionalism, 2(2), 218-236. DOI: 10.1017/S2045381713000063  [details] 
  • Eckes, C., & Hollenberg, S. (2013). Reconciling different legal spheres in theory and practice: pluralism and constitutionalism in the cases of Al Jedda, Ahmed and Nada. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 20(2), 220-243. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2012). EU counter-terrorist sanctions against individuals: problems and perils. European Foreign Affairs Review, 17(1), 113-132. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2012). Environmental Policy 'Outside-In': How the EU's Engagement with International Environmental Law Curtails National Autonomy. German law journal: review of developments in German, European and international jurisprudence, 13(11), 1151-1175. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2012). Protecting supremacy from external influences: a precondition for a European constitutional legal order? European Law Journal, 18(2), 230-250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2011.00595.x  [details] 
  • Eckes, C., Fahey, E., & Kanetake, M. (2012). International, European and U.S. perspectives on the negotiation and adoption of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Currents, 20(2), 20-44. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2011). Controlling the most dangerous branch from afar: multilayered counter-terrorist policies and the European judiciary. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 2(4), 505-522. DOI: 10.1017/S1867299X00006589  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2011). The legal framework of the European Union's counter-terrorist policies: full of good intentions? In C. Eckes, & T. Konstadinides (Eds.), Crime within the area of freedom, security and justice: a European public order (pp. 127-158). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [details] 
  • Eckes, C., & Mendes, J. (2011). The right to be heard in composite administrative procedures: lost in between protection? European Law Review, 36(5), 651-670. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2009). EU counter-terrorist policies and fundamental rights: the case of individual sanctions. (Oxford studies in European law). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2009). Test case for the resilience of the EU's constitutional foundations. European Public Law, 15(3), 351-378. [details] 


  • Curtin, D., & Eckes, C. (2008). The Kadi case: mapping the boundaries between the executive and the judiciary in Europe. International Organizations Law Review, 5(2), 365-369. DOI: 10.1163/157237408X412961  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2008). Judicial review of European anti-terrorism measures - The Yusuf and Kadi judgments of the Court of First Instance. European Law Journal, 14(1), 74-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2007.00402.x 
  • Eckes, C. (2008). Sanctions against individuals: fighting terrorism within the European legal order. European Constitutional Law Review, 4(2), 205-224. DOI: 10.1017/S1574019608002058  [details] 


  • Curtin, D. M., & Eckes, C. (2016). Secrecy Inside and Outside: EU External Relations in Focus. (SIEPS reports). SIEPS - Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies.


  • Eckes, C. (Author). (2014). [book review] EU accession to the ECHR: Ante portas or a mirage on the horizon?. I-CONnect: blog of the International Journal of Constitutional Law and [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (Author). (2014). EU sanctions against Russia - Halfhearted or best response?. Verfassungsblog. [details] 


  • Blockmans, S., Hillion, C., Cremona, M., Curtin, D., De Baere, G., Duke, S., ... Wouters, J. (2013). EEAS 2.0: A legal commentary on Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies. [details] 
  • Blockmans, S., Hillion, C., Cremona, M., Curtin, D., De Baere, G., Duke, S., ... Wouters, J. (2013). EEAS 2.0: Recommendations for the amendment of Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service. (CEPS special reports; No. 78). Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). Decision-making in the dark? Autonomous EU sanctions and national classification. In I. Cameron (Ed.), EU sanctions: law and policy issues concerning restrictive measures (pp. 177-198). (Supranational criminal law; No. 15). Cambridge [etc.]: Intersentia. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration. In U. Neergaard, & R. Nielsen (Eds.), European legal method: towards a new European legal realism? (pp. 163-188). Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). The European Court of Justice and (quasi-)judicial bodies of international organisations. In R. A. Wessel, & S. Blockmans (Eds.), Between autonomy and dependence: the EU legal order under the influence of international organisations (pp. 85-109). The Hague: Asser Press. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-6704-903-0_5  [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2013). The role of judges confronted with norms form different origines: the case of counter-terrorist sanctions. In K. E. Jørgensen, & K. V. Laatikainen (Eds.), Routledge handbook on the Europan Union and international institutions: performance, policy, power (pp. 171-184). (Routledge handbooks). London [etc.]: Routledge. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2011). International law as law of the EU: the role of the ECJ. In E. Cannizzaro, P. Palchetti, & R. A. Wessel (Eds.), International law as law of the European Union (pp. 353-377). (Studies in EU external relations; No. 5). Leiden: Nijhoff. [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2008). Trapped between courts or How European terrorist suspects lost their right to a remedy. In R. Wessel, A. Føllesdal, & J. Wouters (Eds.), Multilevel Regulation and the EU - The Interplay between Global, European and National Normative Processes. Brill.


  • Eckes, C. (2017). Research paper on the Cost of Non-Europe in the Area of Procedural Rights and Detention Conditions. Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services.
  • Eckes, C. (2017). Research paper on the Cost of Non-Europe in the Fight Against Terrorism. Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services.


  • Eckes, C. (Author). (2016). The EU has a Lot to Learn from Brexit. Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.
  • Eckes, C. (Author). (2016). Regardless of a leave or stay vote the EU has tougher questions to address than Brexit. Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.


  • Eckes, C., (2013). Case note: CJEU (case C-239/12 P: Abdulrahim v. Council and Commission), No. 159, May 28, 2013. (EHRC. European Human Right Cases; Vol. 2013, No. 8). [details] 


  • Eckes, C., (2010). Case note: CJEU (Case C-188/07: Commune de Mesquer v. Total France and Total International Ltd.), Jun 24, 2008. (Common Market Law Review; Vol. 2010, No. 3). [details] 


  • Eckes, C. (2009). [Review of: C. Barnard, O. Odudu (2009) The outer limits of European union law]. European Law Review, 34(5), 794-796. [details] 


  • Eckes, Christina (editor), Eeckhout, Piet (editor) & Thies, Anne (editor) (2016): Europe and the World: A Law Review (Journal).


  • Eckes, Christina (speaker) (25-11-2016): Sincere Cooperation in the EU at 27: Who should be loyal to what?, 21st IUS Commune Conngres 2016.
  • Eckes, Christina (speaker) (23-11-2016): Herbezinning op de EU na de Brexit, Alumnimiddag FdR.
  • Eckes, Christina (speaker) (9-11-2016): Brexit: What would be the implications for the Protection of Fundamental Rights?, Toogdag - Onderzoeksschool Rechten van de Mens.
  • Eckes, Christina (speaker) (19-10-2016): The EU at 27: Facilitating Democracy through Loyalty?, The Gandhi Research Seminar Series.
  • Eckes, Christina (speaker) (18-6-2016): Brexit - Where will it leave us?, Congres Jonge Democraten.
  • Eckes, C. (speaker) (27-5-2016): Non-State Actors through the Lens of EU Law, A State-Centric International Legal System? , Maastricht, Netherlands.
  • Eckes, C. (speaker) (28-4-2016): Law and Practice of EU Sanctions, CFSP/CSDP Workshop.


  • Eckes, Christina (participant) (2016): Committee member 'Onderzoekstalent 2016' (other).
  • Weimer, M. (participant), Cseres, K.J. (participant) & Eckes, Christina (participant) (4-11-2016): The Rule of Law in the Technological Age (organising a conference, workshop, ...).




  • Eckes, C. (2016). International Rulings and the EU Legal Order: Autonomy as Legitimacy? (CLEER papers; No. 2016/2). The Hague: Centre for the Law of EU External Relations. [details] 
  • Eckes, C. (2016). Protecting Fundamental Rights in the EU’s Compound Legal Order: Mutual Trust against Better Judgment? (ACELG Working Paper Series; No. 2016-06). Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.
  • Schrauwen, A. A. M., Eckes, C., Weimer, M., Durieux, J-F., Mantu, S., Minderhoud, P., ... Zeitlin, J. H. (2016). Inclusion and Exclusion in the European Union - Collected Papers. (ACELG Working Paper Series; Vol. 2016, No. 05). Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.
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