The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (2005/29/EC) fully harmonises unfair commercial practices law in the European Union. The Directive, which was adopted in 2005, formally aims to achieve a high level of consumer protection and to increase the smooth functioning of the internal market, but also aims to improve competition in the market. The Directive relies to a large extent on general clauses prohibiting unfair commercial practices. Consumer benchmarks are used in this context to determine the expected behaviour of consumers. Bram Duivenvoorde investigates to what extent the regime of consumer benchmarks in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive meet the goals of the Directive.