In recent years, research into renal transplantation has resulted in great advances in our knowledge of allo-immunity and the mechanisms underlying the rejection of solid organ transplants. Although this has led to more effective immunosuppressive drug regimens, a negative consequence has been an increase in post-transplant infectious diseases and malignancies. Tissue injury during transplantation can activate innate immune receptors, which in turn prime the host’s adaptive allo- and autoimmune responses directed against the donor kidney. In his research, Jesper Kers investigates the interplay between tissue injury and immunological responses. He describes different types of transplant injury and how these can contribute to chronic renal allograft failure.