Ecuador has known relatively little political unrest compared to its neighbouring countries. Despite having a similar socioeconomic trajectory and conditions as Colombia, for example. Pablo Ospina Peralta proposes that the main reason why Ecuador managed to avoid open political violence during the second half of the 20th century is that a transformist state was constructed during the first decades of that century. This implies constant efforts of co-optation by opposing leaders, partial transactions between opposing groups, clientelist subordination of entire social sectors, and the permanent negotiation as part of the demands presented by mobilized groups.
P.E. Ospina Peralta: La aleación inestable. Origen y consolidación de un Estado transformista: Ecuador, 1920 - 1960.
Prof. J.M. Baud
Prof. P. Andrade
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