In the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the population of HIV-infected individuals is ageing. Along with this increased longevity, the risk of developing age-related diseased is also rising in this group. Studies have suggested that the risk of developing age-related conditions may be higher in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected individuals of a similar age. Katherine Kooij examines a variety of age-related conditions in a cohort of ageing HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls of a similar age and demographic background. Her research shows that age-related concerns that are more prevalent in the infected group may not be down to HIV and/or cART exposure, but to behaviours that are more prevalent in the infected group, such as smoking.