Vivek Muniraj studies the response of biofilms to external stimuli. This is a cumulative response aggregated from individual bacteria residing within the biofilm. Any perturbation at a microscopic level manifests response at a macroscopic scale. Therefore, the organizational complexity of biofilm can be studied effectively by understanding the bacterial interaction at cell level. The overall aim of Muniraj's research is to explore the complex evolutionary behaviour of bacterial biofilms subject to external perturbations.