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prof. dr. J. (Jørgen) Wadum

Conservering en restauratie
Faculty of Humanities
Photographer: onbekend

Visiting address
  • Johannes Vermeerplein 1
Postal address
  • Johannes Vermeerplein 1
    1071 DV Amsterdam
Contact details
  • Profile

    Summary

    Jørgen Wadum works in the field of conservation & restoration and technical art history. This involves the interdisciplinary collaboration between conservators and scientists, art historians as well as other disciplines such as social and economic history and aesthetics.

    Wadum is chairman of the Department of Conservation & Restoration at the Faculty of Humanities. He will supervise PhD and Master students and give lectures on various topics related to conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Wadum pays particular attention to the development of cooperation between Conservation & Restoration with other disciplines within the humanities and the natural sciences within the UvA as well as with national and international partners.

    Wadum is director of the Centre for Art Technological Studies and Conservation (CATS) ), a research consortium between the National Gallery of Denmark, The NationalMuseum of Denmark, and the School of Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark. Since 2005 he is keeper of conservation of Statens Museum for Kunst, the National Gallery of Denmark. From 1991 to 2005 Wadum was chief conservator of the Mauritshuis, The Hague.

    He is one of the founders of ArtMatters: International Journal for Technical Art History. He has published in international scientific journals such as Journal of Cultural Heritage and SMK Art Journal. Wadum has published and lectured extensively internationally on a multitude of subjects related to technical art history and other issues of importance for the understanding and keeping of our cultural heritage. Beside his chair in Amsterdam and the Copenhagen Directorate he holds management positions in various international organisations.

  • Publications

    For an updated profile and list of publications click: http://pure-01.kb.dk/portal/en/persons/joergen-wadum(8edcf03c-4281-4eed-a571-521a0ddf83df)/publications.html?ordering=publicationOrderByPublicationYearAndTypeAndAuthor&descending=true

     

    PhD thesis
    2009
    J. Wadum (2009) Technical art history: painters' supports and studio practices of Rembrandt, Dou and Vermeer . University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Humanities.

    Books
    2012
    On the Trail of Bosch and Bruegel - Four Paintings United under Cross-examination . Eds E Hermens. Archetype Publications.

    1994
    J. Wadum with contributions by L. Struik van der Loeff, R. Hoppenbrouwers, Vermeer Illuminated. Conservation, Restoration and Research. The Hague: VK Inmerc/Mauritshuis.

    1992
    F. de Graaf, J. Wadum, Een dansfestijn doorgrond. Technish en kunsthistorish onderzoek naar een Vlaams schilderij . The Hague: (Eng. sum.).

    Academic articles

    2014

    A. VilaJ. Wadum, J. Mass, E. Uffelman, B. Buckley, I. Grimstad, V. Andrews, L. Burns, S. Florescu, A. Hull, 'pXRF and IR Fluorescence Imaging Studies of CdS Alteration in Paintings by Edvard Munch and Henri Matisse in Oslo, Copenhagen, and San Francisco'; (in press)

    A. Vila, K. Monrad, J. Wadum, T. Filtenborg, 'As time passed by came sunset. Christen Købke’s 'View of Lake Sortedam', its genesis and colour changes.. / in Science and Art. The Painted Surface. ed. / A. Sgamellotti, B.G. Brunetti, C. Miliani. London: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014. p. 354-372.

     

    2013

    J. Wadum, 'The management of aesthetics and decay', in Managers of Decay: Conservation and Restauration Edition 2013. ed. / A. Goossens. University of Amsterdam, 2013. p. 10-19.

    J. Wadum, L. Lundbye, 'Conservation and innovation', in Plastics Research and Innovation for Museums and Industry (PRIMI). ed. / Lars Lundbye. 2013. p. 11-15.

    N.E.A. Reeler, O. Faurskov Nielsen, S.P.A. Sauer, H.G. Kjaergaard, N.J. Borring, T.F. Filtenborg, A. Vila, JWadum, 'Raman af hvide pigmenter : Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspektroskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter', in: Dansk Kemi, Vol. 94, No. 12, 12.2013, p. 30-34.

     

    2012

    J. Wadum, 'Discoursing Objects - The Multiple Faces of Conservation Documentation', in Kermes : arte e tecnica del restauro ; 85. Nardini Editore, Firenze, 2012, p. 33-38.

    J. Wadum, M. Scharff, 'Tracing the individual 'handwriting' of four 16th-century artists through their underdrawings', in On the Trail of Bosch and Bruegel: Four Paintings United under Cross-examination. ed. / E. Hermens. CATS Series of Technical Studies. ed. London/København : Archetype Publications Ltd., 2012. p. 59-77.

    A. H. Christensen, E. Hermens, G. Koppel, A. Nurkse, P. Smith, H. Tempest, J. Wadum, 'Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple: painting materials and techniques in the context of 16th-century Antwerp studio practice', in On the Trail of Bosch and Bruegel: Four Paintings United under Cross-examination . ed. / E. Hermens. CATS Series of Technical Studies. ed. London/København : Archetype Publications Ltd., 2012. p. 23-43.

     

    2011
    T. Grøntoft, M. Odlyha, P. Mottner, E. Dahlin, S. Lopez-Aparicio, S. Jakiela, M. Scharff, G. Andrade, M. Obarzanowski, M. Ryhl-Svendsen, D. Thickett, S. Hackney, J. Wadum, 'Pollution monitoring by dosimetry and passive diffusion sampling for evaluation of environmental conditions for paintings in microclimate frames', in Journal of Cultural Heritage , pp. 411-419.

    J. Wadum, K. Monrad, M. Scharff, 'Aspects of Christen Købke’s painting technique: from drawing via oil sketch to the final painting', in: Studying Old Master Paintings: Technology and Practice, 2011, p. 216-221.

     

    2008
    J. Verhave, J. Wadum, 'Following the creative process - Peter Paul Rubens: The Ascent to Calvary. The bearing of the Cross', in SMK Art Journal 2007, pp. 86-95.

    2007
    K. Monrad, M. Scharff, J. Wadum, 'Hidden Drawings from the Danish Golden Age. Drawing and underdrawing in Danish Golden Age views from Italy', in SMK Art Journal 2006, pp. 111-119.

    2006
    L. Bøgh Rønberg, J. Wadum, 'Two paintings in Copenhagen re-attributed to Rembrandt', in Burlington Magazine CXLVIII, pp. 82-88.

    2003
    J. Wadum, 'Rembrandts erster »hässlicher« Akt. "Andromeda" von ca. 1630 restauriert und untersucht', in RESTAURO VII, pp. 496-502.

    2002
    P. Noble, J.J. Boon, J. Wadum, 'Dissolution, aggregation and protrusion. Lead soap formation in 17th century grounds and paint layers', in ARTMATTERS - Netherlands Technical Studies in Art I, pp. 46-61.

    J. Wadum, 'Dou doesn't paint, oh no, he juggles with his brush. Gerrit Dou a Rembrandtesque 'Fijnschilder'', in ARTMATTERS - Netherlands Technical Studies in Art I, pp. 62-77.

    2000
    J. Wadum, 'Rembrandt under the Skin. The Mauritshuis Portrait of Rembrandt with Gorget in retrospect', in Oud Holland CXIV, pp. 164-187.

    1994
    J. Wadum, 'Skivestuens trofæer - Et forsøg på en tolkning', in ICO - Iconographisk Post IV, pp. 28-36 (Eng. sum.).

    1993
    B. Broos, J. Wadum, 'Het 'Dochters schilderijtje' van Adriaen van der Werff', in Delineavit et Sculpsit IX,pp. 11-16.

    J. Wadum, 'Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks', in Technologia Artis III, pp. 96-100. 

    1991
    J. Wadum, 'Gravures naar Cornelis Floris en gesculpteerde maskers in kasteel Rosenborg. (Copenhagen)', in CORNELIS FLORIS Jaarboek 1990 , pp. 41-49.

    1989
    J. Wadum, 'Mestermærker på Flamske 1600 tals tavlemalerier' in Meddelelser om Konservering 4: 3, pp. 129-135.

    1988
    J. Wadum, 'The Winter Room at Rosenborg Castle: A Unique Survival of Antwerp Mass-Production', in APOLLO CXXVIII, pp. 82-87.

    1987
    B. Kierkegaard & J. Wadum, 'Handelshusene i Klaksvik', in Tidens Tand III, pp. 22 33.
    J. Wadum, 'Sebastian Vrancx' værksted og Rosenborg Slot', in Iconographisk Post IV, pp. 24-42 (Eng. sum.).

    Book chapters

    2013

    J. Wadum, N.L. Streeton, 'History and use of panels or other rigid supports for easel paintings', in Conservation of Easel Paintings. ed. / J. Hill Stoner; R.A. Rushfield. Vol. 1 Oxon/New York : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012. p. 49-114 (Routledge Series in Conservation and Museology).

    2012
    J. Bredal-Jørgensen, T. Filtenborg, J. Verhave, J. Wadum, 'Determining trends and developments in Jordaens' priming techniques' i Jacob Jordaens: Genius of Grand Scale - Genie großen Formats (CISA=Cultural and Interdisciplinary Studies in Art 10) Stuttgart. (hrsg. von Birgit Ulrike Münch / Zita Pataki) . Stuttgard 2012, pp. 245-267.

    A.H. Christensen, E. Hermens, G. Koppel, A. Nurkse, P. Smith, H. Tempest, J. Wadum, 'Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple: painting materials and techniques in the context of 16th-century Antwerp studio practice', in E Hermens (ed.) On the Trail of Bosch and Bruegel - Four Paintings United under Cross-examination . Archetype Publications, pp. 23-43.

    J. Wadum, M. Scharff, 'Tracing the individual 'handwriting' of four 16th-century artists through their underdrawings', in E Hermens (ed.) On the Trail of Bosch and Bruegel - Four Paintings United under Cross-examination . Archetype Publications, pp. 59-77.

    J. Wadum, N. Streeton, 'History and use of panels or other rigid supports for easel paintings'  in J.H. Stoner & R.A. Rushfield (eds.) Conservation of Easel Paintings, Routledge Series in Conservation and Museology, pp. 49-114.

    2006
    J. Wadum, 'Rembrandt Uncovered', in L. Bøgh Rønberg, E. de la Fuente Pedersen (eds.) Rembrandt? The Master and his Workshop . Statens Museum for Kunst, pp. 124-148.

    T. Doherty, M. Leonard, J. Wadum, 'Brueghel and Rubens at Work: Technique and the Practice of Collaboration', in A Woollett (ed.) Rubens and Brueghel. A Working Friendship . Los Angeles, Getty Publications, pp. 214-251.

    J. Wadum, 'The De Mayerne program: breaking new grounds for art science and conservation in the 21st century', in  J.J. Boon & S.B. Ferreira (eds.) Reporting Highlights of the De Mayerne Programme . The Hague, pp. 9-12.

    2001
    J. Wadum, 'Ravished images restored', in M. Leonard (ed.) Personal Viewpoints - Thoughts about Paintings Conservation . The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, pp. 59-72.

    1999
    J. Wadum, 'Antwerp Copper Plates', in M. Komanecky (ed.) Copper as Canvas. Two centuries of Masterpiece Paintings on Copper 1525-1775 . Oxford University Press. New York/Oxford, pp. 93-116.

    1998
    P. Noble, J. Wadum, 'De restauratie van De anatomische les van Dr. Tulp', in Rembrandt onder het mes.' De anatomische les van Dr. Nicolaes Tulp' ontleed . Den Haag/Amsterdam, pp. 51-74.

    J. Wadum, 'Contours of Vermeer', in I. Gaskel & M. Jonker (eds.) Vermeer Studies. Studiesin the History of Art , 55. Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, Symposium Papers XXXIII. Washington/New Haven, pp. 201-223.

    B. Broos, J. Wadum, 'Eenentwintig keer onder het mes. De restauratiegeschiedenis van De anatomische les van Dr. Tulp', in Rembrandt onder het mes.' De anatomische les van Dr.Nicolaes Tulp' ontleed . Den Haag/Amsterdam, pp. 39-50.

    J. Wadum, 'The Antwerp Brand on Paintings on Panels', in E Hermens (ed.) Looking Through Paintings. The Study of Painting Techniques and Materials in Support of Art Historical Research . Leids Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek XI, pp. 179-198.  

    1997
    J. Wadum, 'Vermeers zielgerichtete Beobachtungen', in Johannes Vermeer. Der Geograph und der Astronom nach 200 Jahren wieder vereint . Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Franckfurt am Main (exh.cat.)15.05.-13.07.1997 Franckfurt am Main: Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, pp. 31-38.
    1996
    J. Wadum, 'Vermeer and the Spatial Illusion', in The World of Learning in the time of Vermeer (exh.cat.) The Hague: Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum (Museum of the Book), pp. 31-49.

    1995
    J. Wadum, 'Vermeer in Perspective', in Johannes Vermeer (exh.cat.) National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Royal Cabinet of Pictures Mauritshuis, The Hague Waanders, pp. 67-79.
    1986
    J. Wadum, 'A Pictorial Analysis of five 5 paintings from 1934 to 1976', in in P. Hovdenakk (ed.) Egill Jacobsen II . Copenhagen, pp. 80-88.

    J. Wadum, 'Two 'New' Paintings by Egill Jacobsen from 1934 35', in P. Hovdenakk (ed.) Egill Jacobsen II . Copenhagen, pp. 73-79.

    Conference papers
    2011
    J. Wadum, K. Monrad, M. Scharff, 'Aspects of Christen Købke's painting technique: from drawing via oil sketch to the final painting', in Proceedings of the National Gallery Technical Bulletin 30th Anniversary Conference 2009 , pp. 216-221.
    A.H. Christensen, M. Scharff, J. Wadum, 'Interim results of a Needs Assessment Study for the Field of Panel Paintings Conservation', in Facing the ChallengesofPanelPaintings Conservation: Trends, Treatments and Training. Proceedings of a Symposium at the Getty Center, May 17-18, 2009 . Eds. A. Phenix & S.A. Chui, Los Angeles, pp. 3-9.
    M. Ryhl-Svendsen, M. Scharff, J. Wadum, T. Grøntoft, E. Dahlin, S. Lopez-Aparicio, M. Odlyha, G. Andrade, A. Ortega, M. Obarzanowski, J. Czop, S. Hackney, D. Thickett, M.P. Colombini, and I. Bonaduce, 'Gaseous Pollutants inside Microclimate Frames: Results from the PROPAINT Project', in Facing the Challenges of Panel Paintings Conservation: Trends, Treatments and Training. Proceedings of a Symposium at the Getty Center, May 17-18, 2009. Eds. A Phenix & SA Chui, Los Angeles, pp. 165-177.

    2009
    J. Wadum, K. Monrad, M. Scharff, 'The Multiple Views of Italy by Danish Golden Age Artists: Reality or Manipulation?', in Colloquium XVI for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting "The Quest for the Original", Bruges, 21-23 Sep 2006. Eds. H Verougstraete, C Janssens de Bisthoven, Peeters Publishers 2009, pp.143-151.

    2007
    T. Grøntoft, E. Dahlin, M. Odlyha, M. Scharff, G. Andrade, P. Mottner, J. Czop, P. Colombini, S. Hackney, J. Wadum, 'Improved protection of paintings during exhibition, storage and transit - PROPAINT' (EU project FP6, 044254), in T. Padfield & K. Borchersen (eds.) Abstracts of posters at the conference "Museums microclimates" , Copenhagen, Nov. 19-23.  Danish National Museum.

    2004
    J. Wadum, 'Past Failures for Future Learning', in Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response, international symposium proceedings , Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, Nov. 23 -27, 2003. ICOM, pp. 45-51.

    2003
    J. Wadum, 'Not how - but what, why, and for whom - that is the issue for conservation-restoration in the 21st Century', in post-prints to Conferencia Internacional Sobre Patrimonio e Desenvolvimento , June 29 and July 3, Coimbra, Portugal.

    2002
    B. Berlowicz, M.C. Christensen, J. Wadum, 'Made in Brazil? Eckhout and Post, Dutch painters in Brazil, 1637-1644', in R. Vontobel (ed.) ICOM-CC 13thTriennial Meeting Preprints, Rio de Janeiro , Sept. 22-27, 2002, pp. 394-400.  

    J. Wadum, 'Characteristics of the Painting Technique of Frans Post, a Dutch Painter in Brazil in the Period 1637-1644', in E. de Vries (ed.) Albert Eckhout returns to Brasil 1644-2002: International Experts Symposium . São Paulo, pp. 273-279.

    J. Wadum, 'Latest news from Paradise: a preliminary attempt to identify Rubens's studio practice, Part II', in R. Vontobel (ed.) ICOM-CC 13th TriennialMeeting Preprints, Rio de Janeiro , Sept. 22-27, 2002, pp. 473-478 .

    J.J. Boon, J. van der Weerd, K. Keune, P. Noble, J. Wadum, 'Mechanical and chemical changes in old masterpaintings:dissolution, metal soap formation and remineralisation processes in leadpigmented ground/intermediate paint layers of 17th century paintings', in R. Vontobel (ed.) ICOM-CC 13th Triennial Meeting Preprints, Rio de Janeiro , Sept. 22-27, 2002. ICOM-CC, pp. 401-406.

    2000
    P. Noble, J. Wadum, K. Groen, R.M.A. Heeren, K.J. van den Berg, 'Aspects of 17th century Binding Medium: Inclusions in Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp', in Proceedings of the International congress on contribution of chemistry to the works of art, Art & Chimie, la couleur , pp. 126-129.

    J.Wadum, 'Van Bakmaker tot Paneelmaker. Twee eeuwen Antwerps schrijnwerkerambacht', in Proceedings van het Symposium Hout- en Meubelrestauratie , Sept. 1999, Amsterdam, pp. 1-11.

    1999
    R.M.A. Heeren, J.J. Boon, P. Noble, J. Wadum, 'Integrating imaging FTIR and secondary ion mass spectrometry for the analysis of embedded paint cross-sections', in J. Bridgland 8ed.) ICOM-CC 12th Triennial Meeting Preprints, Lyon , Aug. 29-Sept. 3, 1999. ICOM-CC, pp. 228-233.

    J. Wadum, P. Noble, 'Is there an Ethical Problemafter the Twenty-third Treatment of Rembrandt's "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp"?', in J. Bridgland (ed.) ICOM-CC 12th Triennial Meeting Preprints, Lyon , Aug. 29-Sept. 3 1999. ICOM-CC, pp. 206-210.
    L. Traversi, J. Wadum, 'Un tableau avec Deux enfants s'embrassant au Mauritshuis', in H. Verougstraete & R. Van Schoute (eds.) La peinture dans les Pays-Bas au 16e siècle. Pratiques d'atelier infrarouge et autres méthodes d'investigation . Colloque XII 1997, pp. 99-109.  

    1998
    J. Wadum, 'Microclimate Boxes for Panel Paintings', in K. Dardes & A. Rothe (eds.) The Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings. Proceedings of a Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 24-28 April 1995 . Los Angeles: Getty Publications, pp. 497-524.  

    J. Wadum, 'Historical Overview of Panel-Making Techniques inthe Northern Countries', in K. Dardes & A. Rothe (eds.) The Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings. Proceedings of a Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 24-28 April 1995 . Los Angeles: Getty Publications, pp. 149-177.

    J. Wadum, 'Microclimate-Boxes for Panel Paintings', in U.H. Vielhaber 8ed.) Die Kunst zu verpacken . 2e Symposium Bundesverband Deutscher Diplom-RestauratorInnen, Nov. 19, 1994. Cologne, pp.22-24.

    J. Wadum, 'Peeter Stas: An Antwerp Coppersmith and his Marks', in A. Roy & P. Smith (eds.) Painting Techniques History, Materials and Studio Practice . Contributions to the IIC 17th International Congress, Dublin, Sept. 7-11,1998. IIC, pp.140-144.
    J. Wadum, 'Raising Awareness at Public, Professional and Political Levels', in Tutela del patrimonio culturale: Verso un profilo Europeo del restauratore di Beni Culturali . Summit Europeo, Pavia, Oct. 18-22 1997, pp. 247-249.

    1996
    J. Wadum,'Microclimate Boxes for Paintings: A Manual', in ICOM CC 11th Triennial Meeting Edinburgh Preprints. Poster Summaries , vol II. London: ICOM-CC, p. 984.

    J. Wadum, 'A Preliminary Attempt to Identify Rubens' Studio Practice', in ICOM CC 11th Triennial Meeting Edinburgh Preprints , vol I. London: ICOM-CC, pp. 393-395.
    1995
    J. Wadum, N. Costaras, 'Johannes Vermeer's 'Girl with a Pearl Earring' De- & Re-Restored', in Restauration, Dé-Restauration, Re-Restauration ... Paris: ARAAFU, pp. 163-172.

    J. Wadum, 'Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675) and His Use of Perspective', in E. Hermens & A. Wallert (eds.) Preprints Historical Painting Techniques, Materials, and Studio Practice . University of Leiden, 26-29 June 1995. Getty Publications, pp. 148-154.

    1994
    J. Wadum, IJ. Hummelen, B.A.H.G. Jütte, W.Kragt, L.Sozzani, 'Research Programme Microclimates: Paintings on  Panel andCanvas', in Preventive Conservation. Practice, Theory and Research ; Summaries of the Posters at the Ottawa Congress (1994), no p. no's.

    1990
    J. Wadum, '17th c Flemish Panel Makers' Red Chalk Master Marks', in ICOM CC 9th Triennial Meeting Dresden Preprints vol. II., Los Angeles: Getty Publications, pp. 663-666.  

    Scientific Reports
    2010
    PROPAINT. Improved Pretection of Paintings during Exhibition, Storage and Transit. Final Activity Report (E. Dahlin ed.), with contributions by A.H. Christensen, T. Grøntoft, M. Odlyha, P. Mottner, E. Dahlin, S. Lopez-Aparicio, M. Scharff, G. Andrade, M. Obarzanowski, M. Ryhl-Svendsen, D. Thickett, S. Hackney, J. Wadum, S. Jakiela. NILU.
    J. Wadum, M. Scharff, A.H. Christensen, The Getty Panel Paintings Initiative. Final Report for the Needs Assessment and Literature Surveys , SMK, Copenhagen 2010.

    Book reviews
    J. Wadum, 'De tent van Vermeer. Bedacht of niet bedacht', recensie over Philip Steadmans Vermeer's Camera. Uncovering the truth Behind the Masterpieces, in Vrij Nederland (28 April 2001), p. 68.
    J. Wadum, 'De Oranjezaal herrezen', recensie van Oranjezaal in huis ten Bosch in oude glorie hersteld, Rijksgebouwendienst in samenwerking met het Ministerie van Volkshuisvestiging, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer, in tellus. Magazine voor VROM-medewerkers IX (2001), p. 6.
    J. Wadum, 'De 17de eeuw gemanipuleerd of 'A Web of Technical Mystery'', recensie van Vermeer's Camera. Uncovering the Truth behind the Masterpieces door P. Steadman, in Cr. Interdisciplinair vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 2, III (2001), pp. 51-54.

    Journalistic articles
    2011
    'Kulturarvens usynligeværdi er gigantisk', CKO home page , Nov. 9.
    http://www.cko.dk/gruppeindlaeg/kulturarvens-usynlige-v-rdi-er-gigantisk
    'PRIMI på fransk visit på Louvre', CKO home page , Oct, 4.
    http://www.cko.dk/gruppeindlaeg/primi-p-fransk-visit-p-louvre

    2009
    J. Wadum, 'Surgical Microscope in the Service of Art Restoration. An Age-old Patient', in reSOLUTION , No. 1. Leica Publications, p. 18.
    J. Wadum, A. Schué, 'Stereomikroskopie im Dienst der Kunstrestaurierung', i LaborPraxis web-publikation , Nov. 10.
    http://www.laborpraxis.vogel.de/analytik/mikroskopie/articles/237385/?cmp=beleg-mail
    A.H. Christensen, T. Filtenborg, J. Wadum, et al., 'Revealing the Secrets of a 17th Century Masterpiece. Restoration in an Open Workshop', in reSOLUTION Special Edition , No. 4. Leica Publications, pp 6-9.

    2008
    J. Wadum, 'Die Restaurierung einesMeisterwerkes live erleben. Stereomikroskopie hilft Kunstschätze zu erhalten', in reSOLUTION - Newsletter für Materialwissenschaft & Technologie , Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, pp. 12-14.

    2007
    J. Wadum, 'Einblicke in die Erforschung und Restaurierung eines Gemäldes von Jacob Jordaens. Offene Werkstatt im Statens Museum for Kunst in Kopenhagen', in RESTAURO 8, pp. 496-500.
    'Vermeer', NHK (Japan's public television), Tokyo, Japan, Dec.

    2006
    J. Wadum & L. Bøgh Rønberg, 'A unique Rembrandt Rediscovered: 'The Crusader'', in RESTAURO 2, München, pp. 110-117.
    L Bøgh Rønberg & J Wadum, 'Le Croisé et l'Etude d'un vieillard de profil. Deux oeuvres réattribuées à Rembrandt', in Dossier de l'Art 129, Paris, pp. 52-61.
    'Genuine Rembrandts', Beyond Tomorrow , TV Channel 7, Australia, July 12.
    'Rembrandts Self-portraits', NHK (Japans public television),Tokyo, Japan,Nov. 13.

    2004
    J. Wadum, 'Restauration: les secrets révélés du Chardonneret', in Dossier de l'Art CXIII, pp. 33-39.
    J. Wadum, ''Het puttertje' gerestaureerd en doorgelicht'/''The Goldfinch' restored and examined', in Mauritshuis in Focus II, pp. 12-15.

    2003
    E. Runea, P. Noble, J. Wadum, 'Twee naakten van Rembrandt gerestaureerd en onderzocht' / 'Two nudes by Rembrandt restored and examined', in Mauritshuis in Focus 1, pp. 8-19.
    J. Wadum, 'Rembrandts erster »hässlicher« Akt.  "Andromeda" von ca. 1630 restauriert und untersucht', in RESTAURO VII, pp. 496-502.

    2002
    J. Wadum, 'ICOM-CC Newsletter 2002/1 is uit'/'ICOM-CCVotingMembers'/'ICOM-CC website als afstudeerproject'/'ICOM-CC Rio 2002 Congres'/'ICOM Nederland versus ICOM Internationale Organisaties', in Cr. Interdisciplinair vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 3, I, pp. 65-67.
    J. Wadum, 'Triënale Meeting in Rio de Janairo'/'Uitdaging 2005', in Cr. Interdisciplinair vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 3, II, pp. 64-65
    J. Wadum, 'Nieuwe werkgroep', in Cr. Interdisciplinair vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 3, III, p. 62.

    2001
    J. Wadum, 'Het laatste nieuws uit het paradijs'/'The latest news from paradise', in Mauritshuis in Focus 1, pp. 22-30.
    J. Wadum, 'International Council of Museums-Committee for Conservation'/'ICOM en de Nederlandse Restauratiebeurs'/'ICOM-CC 13th Triennial Meeting 2002', in Cr. Interdisciplinair vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 2, II, pp. 55-57.
    J. Wadum, 'ICOM 19th General Conference, Barcelona'/'Friends of ICOM-CC"/"ICOM-CC Congress'/'Blue Shield'/'Museal beleid in Nederland', in Cr. Interdisciplinait vakblad voor Conservering en Restauratie , jaargang 2, IV, pp. 53-54.

    2000
    J. Wadum, 'Mikroklimavitrinen ohne Feuchtigkeitspuffer. Für Feuchtigkeitsempfindliche Holztafeln und leimdoublierte Gemälde', in RESTAURO 2, pp. 96-100.

    1999
    I. Horovitz & J. Wadum, 'Kunst op Koper. Twee eeuwen meesterwerken op koperplaat', in kM 30, pp. 4-6.
    J. Wadum & C. van der Elst, 'Attribution et désattribution. Les portraits de Nuremberg et de La Haye', in Dossier de l'Art 61, pp. 34-43.

    1998
    J. Wadum & P. Noble, 'Gaten in Rembrandt', in Natuur & Techniek IIX, pp. 41-42.
    1997
    J. Wadum, 'Panelen "van één stuck en gelycke formaet"', in kM XXIII, pp. 26-28.

    1996
    J. Wadum,''Gemälde mögen einige hundert Jahre bestehen, was genügt...' Zwei Gemälde von Johannes Vermeer restauriert', in RESTAURO III, pp. 172-177.
    J. Wadum, 'Les audaces techniques de Vermeer', in Dossiers de l´Art XXVII, pp. 30-39.
    J. Wadum, 'Des perspectives curieuses et extraordinaires', in Dossiers de l´Art XXVII, pp. 42-49.
    J. Wadum, 'Vermeers perspectieven', in kM XVII, pp. 32-34.

    1995
    J. Wadum, 'Hobbema doorgelicht'/'Hobbema examined', in Mauritshuis in Focus I, pp. 21-23.
    J. Wadum, 'Primuersel of Imprimatura?', in kM XV, pp. 39-40.
    N. Costaras & J. Wadum, 'Verseeckert sijn van altijt te duyren. Vermeers gerestaureerd', in Natuur & Techniek IX, pp. 670-681.

    1994
    J. Wadum, 'Conservering en restauratie in het Mauritshuis'/'Conservation and Restoration in the Mauritshuis', in Mauritshuis in Focus I, pp. 13-14.
    J. Wadum & E. Hermens, 'Het verslagvan een bedoeking'/'Report of a Relining', in Mauritshuis in Focus I, pp. 23-26.
    J.Wadum, 'Vermeer in het licht'/'Vermeer illuminated', in Mauritshuis in Focus II, pp. 7-9.

    1993
    J. Wadum, 'Infrarood reflektografie als ontdekkingsmetode: een case study', in Decorum jaargang XI, 1, pp. 28-30.
    B. Broos & J. Wadum, 'Vier panelen uit één boom'/'Four Panels from One Tree', in Mauritshuis in Focus I, pp. 13-16.

    1992
    N. Christie & J. Wadum, 'De grond der zinnen', in The Mauritshuis Nieuwsbrief (5) I, pp. 9-11.
    J. Wadum, 'De betere klimaatdoos', in The Mauritshuis Nieuwsbrief (5) II, pp. 8-9.
    J. Wadum, 'Conservering in het Mauritshuis: de groiende achterstand', in The Mauritshuis Nieuwsbrief (5) III/IV, pp. 10-11.

    1991
    J. Wadum, 'Portretten in miniatuur - minimaal belicht', in The Mauritshuis Nieuwsbrief (4) II, pp. 6-7.

    1989
    J. Wadum, 'Vinterstuens masker', in SKALK 4. pp. 7-10.

    1987
    J. Wadum, 'Malerier på samlebånd. Nyt lys over Christian IV's Vinterstue på Rosenborg Slot', in Museums magasinet XXXIX, pp. 8-10.

    1984
    B. Kierkegaard & J. Wadum, 'Pilastrar, Kannilurar og Rosettir', in Mondul I, pp. 11-17.

  • Lectures

    Lectures

    2012
    'In search for underdrawing in Rembrandt', at Rembrandt and the Passion Symposium , Hunterian Art Gallery/University of Glasgow. 16 Nov 2012, Glasgow
    'Carel Fabritius - between Rembrandt and Vermeer ', in Workshop in Infra-red Reflectography and the Analysis of Old Master Paintings . The Hunterian Art Gallery, organised by the Glasgow University & CATS. 15 Nov 2012, Glasgow
    'Rembrandt's 'The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolas Tulp' - examined and restored ', in Workshop in Infra-red Reflectography and the Analysis of Old Master Paintings . The Hunterian Art Gallery, organised by the Glasgow University & CATS. 14 Nov 2012, Glasgow
    'Kunstskatte i Europas storbyer: Amsterdam', at The Danish University Extension in Aarhus , Emdrup Campus, 22 Oct 2012,Copenhagen.
    'The Centre for ArtTechnological Studies and Conservation - CATS', at Institute of Chemistry & Physics , University of Copenhagen. 5 Oct 2012
    'The Centre for Art Technological Studies and Conservation - CATS', 13 Sep 2012, NIKU , Oslo.
    Inauguration speech for the conservation & restoration of the 60m2 fresco Den store nadver (1901) by Joakim Skovgaard,  16 Aug 2012, Klaksvik, Faroe Islands.
    'Tracing Bosch and Bruegel - Four Paintings Magnified', at CIHA 2012 in Nuremberg. 33rd Congress of the International Committee of the History of Art , 15 -20 July 2012.
    'A 350 Years Young Girl', opening speech at the 21 NKG Nordisk Kongres in Gerontologi , 10 June 2012, Copenhagen.
    'General Introduction to Technical Art History and the Centre for Art Technological Studies and Conservation - CATS', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    'Tracing Bosch & Bruegel - Four Paintings Magnified', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    'Rembrandt's (1606-1669) 'The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp'   examined and restored', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    ' Rembrandt or not? The Rembrandt Research Project at the National Gallery of Denmark', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    ' Fabritius (1622-1654), between Rembrandt and Vermeer', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    ''The Girl with the Pearl Earring': Vermeer's Mid-Career
      Masterpiece in the Context of Technique and Illusion', at the International  Symposium Rembrandt or Not? Scientific Research on Art ,  Sakıp Sabancı Museum , Istanbul (12-13 April 2012)
    'Understanding artworks enables their preservation'. Key-note lecture at CODART VIJFTEEN , 19 March 2012, Brussels.
    'Gennemlyst - på sporet af Bosch & Bruegel'. Nivaagaard Malerisamling , 7 March 2012, Nivaa.

    2011
    Chair of session: ' Expert meeting to develop a research agenda for the structural conservation of panel paintings and related works of art ', Ateliergebouw, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 9-11 Jan. 2011
    'Den Nederlandske Deltaplan til bevaring af kulturarven - Baggrund, Gennemførelse, Resultater', ODM-KEP Symposium 2011: Bevaringsplaner . Svendborg. 8 March2011.
    'Panel paintings: understanding, deterioration,mechanisms and conservation practices', workshop at CODART VEERTEEN . Enschede. 21 March 2011.

    'Ind- og Udlån fra SMK - m/u kurértjeneste', forelæsning Konservatorskolen . Copenhagen, 9 May 2011.
    'Rembrandt or not? The Rembrandt research project at the National Gallery of Denmark', W orkshop in Technical Art History . Tallinn. 13-14 May 2011.
    'Discoursing Objects - The Multiple Faces of Conservation Documentation', Key-note CHARISMA FIRST USERS' MEETING . C2RMF, Louvre, Paris. 6 June 2011.
    'Welcome and Introduction of the Course Leaders and Participants', Kraków Summer Institute . Kraków. 29 Aug 2011.
    'Panel Making Techniques (Historical Overview): Northern Countries' and WORKSHOP EXERCISES (demonstration of wooden boards and their preparation). Kraków Summer Institute . Kraków, 31 Aug -1 Sept 2011.
    'Rembrandt or Not? The Rembrandt Research Project at the National Gallery of Denmark'. University of Oslo . 26 Oct 2011.
    'The Girl with the Pearl Earring: Vermeer's Mid-Career Masterpiece in the Context of Technique and Illusion'. University of Oslo . 26 Oct 2011.
    'Tracing Rembrandt, Bosch and Bruegel - an interdisciplinary collaboration between conservators, conservation scientists and art historians called Technical Art History', AFSMK lecture at the ARTstor office , New York. 31 Oct 2011.
    'CATS - interdisciplinært og interinstitutionelt samarbejde for ny viden og bevaring', ODM: Fagligt orienteringsmøde , Fuglsø. Nyborg Strand. 16 Nov 2011.
    Workshop on Technical Art History and the Analysis of Old Master Paintings. Organizers and partners: J. Wadum, M. Scharff, H. Hiiop,A. Nurkse, H. Tempest. Lectures:
    'Welcome and introduction to the Workshop';
    'What is Technical Art History?';
    'The making of panel paintings';
    'Marking of Antwerp panel paintings';
    'Structural treatments of panel paintings, an overview'; 'Techniques of Rembrandt and Carel Fabritius'.
     Kadriorg Art Museum, Tallinn. 21-23 Nov 2011.

    2010
    'TheGirl with the Pearl Earring: Vermeer's Mid-Career Masterpiece in the Context of Technique and Illusion'. Glasgow University . 11 Jan 2011.
    '"Oil on panel ": the cradle of European easel painting'. Conference TREE RINGS, ART, ARCHAEOLOGY , Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK/IRPA), Brussels. 9-11 Feb 2010.
    'Introduction' to the International Symposium on Museum Climate seen in the context of Global Climate Changes , National Gallery of Denmark. Copenhagen. 1 March 2010.
    'Diversitet i kulturarv og bevaring af samme', MA lecture Institute of Art History , Copenhagen University. 4 March 2010.
    'Air pollutionin St.BaafsCathedral, Gent, and in the vitrine of Lam Gods by H. & J. Van Eyck (1432-35)'. Report on scientific analysis . Gent. 17 March 2010.
    'Polychrome wood/panel painting. Description and treatment'. The International Course on Wood Conservation Technology , Norsk Institutt for Kulturminneforskning, Oslo. 17 June 2010.
    'Discoursing Artworks or Professional Conciliation -The Multiple Faces of Conservation Documentation'. Keynote, Skandinavisk PhD kolloquium , Det Kgl. Danske Kunstakademi, Konservatorskolen. Copenhagen. 18 Nov 2010.

    2009
    'Rembrandt?!', University of Oslo , fakultet for arkæologi og konservering. Oslo. 16 March 2009.
    'Pigen med Perleørenringen - et midtkarriere mesterværk set i en kontekst af illusion og teknik'. University of Oslo , fakultet for arkæologiog konservering. Oslo. 16 March 2009.
    'The objectives of the Panel Paintings Initiative - a multi year collaborative project between the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and partners'.
    COST ACTION IE0601 WoodCultHer FOCUSED MEETING: Consolidation, reinforcement & stabilisation of decorated wooden artefacts. University of Prague, Institute of Chemical Technology. Prague. 30 March 2009.
    'Panel Paintings Initiative. Objectives, Surveys and Opportunities'. Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie , Krakow. 2 April2009.
    'Preliminary Results of a Needs Assessment Study for the Field of Panel Paintings Conservation'. Getty Center , Los Angeles. 16 May 2009.
    'Pigen med Perleørenringen - et midtkarriere mesterværk set i en kontekst af illusion og teknik'. University of Oslo , fakultet for arkeologi og konservering. Oslo. 8 Oct 2009.
    'Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings: Tradition, Innovation, Initiatives'. COST IE0601 International Conference: "WOODEN CULTURAL HERITAGE: EVALUATION OF DETERIORATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE. University of Hamburg, Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology. Hamburg. 9 Oct 2009.
    'Panel Paintings Initiative. Objectives, Surveys and Opportunities'. SRAL , Maastricht. 16 Oct 2009.
    'Panel Paintings Initiative. Objectives, Surveys and Opportunities'. Louvre/C2RMF, Paris. 22 Oct 2009.
    'The Development and Use of Microclimate Frames in Europe'. Final Seminar and a workshop for the PROPAINT project. Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie , Krakow. 20-21 Nov 2009.

    2008
    'Polychrome wood/panel painting. Description and treatment'. The International Course on Wood Conservation Technology , Norsk Institutt for Kulturminneforskning, Oslo. 16 June 2008.
    'Discoursing Artworks or Professional Conciliation. The Multiple Faces of Conservation Documentation'. Oranienbaum Colloquium , Schlos Oranienbaum, Dessau-Wörliz. 4-7 Sep 2008.
    'Kan 'grønne' museer bevare kulturarven?', Nationalmuseum , Stockholm. 7 Oct 2008.
    'Noord Nederlandse Panelen'. Universiteit van Amsterdam , Amsterdam. 13 Oct 2008.
    'The Girl with the Pearl Earring. Vermeer's mid-career masterpiece in the context of technique and illusion'. Estonian Academy of Arts , Tallinn. 2 Dec 2008.
    'Gosth Images'. EU-Propaint meeting , Madrid. 6 Dec 2008.
    Chair at Mantegna Seminar, Louvre/C2RMF, Paris. 19 Dec 2008.

    2007
    'The Girl with the Pearl Earring, Vermeer's mid-career masterpiece in the context of technique and restoration'. Nationalmuseum , Stockholm, 16 Jan 2007.
    'Long-term loans and loan fees'. EU-symposium 'Grenzüberschreitungen / Crossing Borders ', Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, München 16-17 April 2007.
    'Microclimate frames for paintings, use and preventive conservation - The role of monitoring technology'. EU PROPAINT End-User Workshop , National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6-8 May 2007.
    'Crossing Boarders - Museum Collections on the Move'. ICOM-CC Conference Session 2007: Managing a Finite Resource - Balancing Conservation and Use of Collections , Wien, 20-22 Aug 2007.
    'Onderzoek, documentatie, behandeling - en het publiek'. Inaugural toespraak samenwerking ICN, UvA en het Rijksmuseum , Amsterdam. 7 Nov 2007.
    'Ind- og udlån - og så i mikroklimarammer - bevar mig vel!' ODM´s årsmøde , Fuglsø, 14 Nov 2007.
    Chair at Nationalmuseets conference Museums microclimates . Copenhagen, Nov. 19-23, 2007.
    'Mindsets on the Move'. ODM annual meeting . Vejle, 29 Nov. 2007.
    'Johannes Vermeer. À la recherche dutemps perdu'. Det danske Proust selskab . Mønstings Hus, Copenhagen, 2 Dec. 2007.

    2006
    'Rembrandt? Mesteren og hans værksted', School of Conservation . Copenhagen, 25 March 2006.
    'Polychrome wood panel paintings', The 12th International Course on Wood Conservation Technology (ICWCT), Oslo, 12 June 2006.
    'The multiple views of Italy: Reality or manipulated by the Danish Golden Age artists', Symposium XVI for the Studyof Underdrawing and Technology in Painting . Brugge, 22 Sep. 2006.
    'Bevaringsstrategier, et kig ud i verden', ODMs Bevarings- og Samlingsnetværks. Randers, Sep. 28 2006.
    'The De Mayerne program: breaking new grounds for art science and conservation in the 21st century', The Netherlands Organisation of Scientific Research (NOW), The De Mayerne final symposium. Amsterdam, 17 Nov 2006.
    'With the back against the wall: Finding information behind the scene', Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum, Aachen, 22 Nov. 2006.
    'Vermeer eller camera obscura?', Kunstindustrimuseet. Copenhagen, 11 Dec. 2006.

    2004
    'Past Failures for Future Learning', at Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response, international symposium , Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, Nov. 23 -27, 2003. 

    2003
    'Not how - but what, why, and for whom - that is the issue for conservation-restoration in the 21st Century', at Conferencia Internacional Sobre Patrimonio e Desenvolvimento , June 29 and July 3, Portugal.

    2002
    'Characteristics of the Painting Technique of Frans Post, a Dutch Painter in Brazil in the Period 1637-1644', at Albert Eckhout returns to Brasil 1644-2002: International Experts Symposium .São Paulo, 2002.     
    'Latest news from Paradise: a preliminary attempt to identify Rubens'sstudio practice, Part II', at ICOM-CC 13th TriennialMeeting Preprints, Rio de Janeiro , Sept. 22-27, 2002.     
    J.J. Boon, J. van der Weerd, K. Keune, P. Noble, J. Wadum,
    2000    

    1999
    'Is there an Ethical Problemafter the Twenty-third Treatment of Rembrandt's "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp"?', at ICOM-CC 12th Triennial Meeting Preprints, Lyon , Aug. 29-Sept. 3, 1999.

    'Van Bakmaker tot Paneelmaker. Twee eeuwen Antwerps schrijnwerkerambacht', at Symposium Hout- en Meubelrestauratie , Sept. 1999, Amsterdam.

    1998
    'Peeter Stas: An Antwerp Coppersmith and his Marks', at Painting Techniques History, Materials and Studio Practice . IIC 17th InternationalCongress, Dublin, Sept. 7-11,1998.

    1997
    'Raising Awareness at Public, Professional and Political Levels', at Tutela del patrimonio culturale: Verso un profilo Europeo del restauratore di Beni Culturali . Summit Europeo, Pavia, Oct. 18-22. 1997.

    1995
    'Microclimate Boxes for Panel Paintings', at The Structural Conservationof Panel Paintings. Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 24-28 April 1995 . Los Angeles.          
    'Historical Overview of Panel-Making Techniques inthe Northern Countries', at The Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings. Symposium at the J. Paul Getty Museum, 24-28 April 1995 . Los Angeles.

    1994
    'Microclimate-Boxes for Panel Paintings', at Die Kunst zu verpacken . 2e Symposium Bundesverband Deutscher Diplom-RestauratorInnen, Nov. 19, 1994. Cologne.

  • CATS

    CATS

    Centre for Art Technological Studies and Conservation   (CATS) is a cooperative research centre by:
    The National Gallery of Denmark
    The National Museum of Denmark
    School of Conservation (SoC) at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation
    The purpose of CATS is

    • to advance 'collections research', which in present-day gallery vocabulary incorporates not only the long-established art historical research of the collections but also the technical research that has increasingly proved essential to a better understanding and appreciation of works of art.

    • in-depth scientific research to explore the material nature of works of art and comparable objects in museums with which CATS collaborates.

    • to provide analytical services to other institutions.

    • to conduct collaborative projects with conservation scientists, conservators and curators from around the world.


    The aim of CATS is

    • to generate and document a deeper understanding of methods and materials of the past through advanced research into works of art in museums.

    • to be part of an interdisciplinary effort to analyse by traditional and state of the art methods and equipment, with the objective of answering questions about interpretation and understanding collections.

    • that these activities will not only advance scholarly understanding, but also contribute to the public appreciation of the collections and their long-term safekeeping through preventive alternatively instrumental conservation-restoration actions.


    Field of research

    The scientific staff of CATS provides analytical services to Danish and international institutions and  contribute to the understanding of physical properties and behaviour of the substance of artworks as well as the materials with which they are treated.
    CATS researchers will play a pivotal role in the parallel conservational and curatorial research: the identification of materials and techniques in works of art can be a key factor in their dating and attribution, but is also an important diagnostic tool in the recognition of deterioration factors, and may be imperative for the choice of future treatment approach and preservation strategies.
    CATS activities will not only advance a scholarly understanding, but also contribute to the public appreciation of the collections and their long-term safekeeping via preventive or instrumental conservation-restoration actions.


    Visit the Conservator

    In the Conservation Department of SMK conservators are working with the preservation of the collection consisting of paintings on wood and canvas, works of art on paper, photographic material, sculpture and contemporary art in order to ensure that future generations can also profit fromour common cultural heritage. We carry out research, conservation, restoration, and  documentation on the different types of art works within the collection.

    CATS

  • Ancillary activities
    No known ancillary activities