The University of Amsterdam (UvA) was asked to conduct this research in response to questions from farmers' organizations regarding the spatial distribution of various nitrogen sources (agriculture, traffic, aviation) in the nitrogen deposition models used by the Dutch authorities. The research focused on two dairy farms. One farm was located in a more urban area, with a lot of traffic in the area; the other was more isolated and in a rural area.
Highest deposition on farmyard
Several sub-studies have been carried out under the leadership of Albert Tietema of the UvA’s Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED). He and his colleagues used both existing methods to measure nitrogen deposition and a couple of new, experimental methods, including the use of bio-indicators. Together, these methods provided a clear picture.
Only 9% of the nitrogen emitted by a farm ends up within a radius of 500 meters from the stable. At that distance, the farm's contribution has fallen to a quarter of the total nitrogen concentration in the air and to a fifth of the nitrogen deposition. Within these 500 meters, nitrogen deposition decreases exponentially as the distance from the farm increases. Nitrogen that precipitates in the vicinity of the farm is mainly deposited on the farmyard itself, within a radius of 100 meters around the farm.
Nitrogen is also deposited outside 500 meter radius, but at this distance, an individual farm can no longer be identified as the most important source. Nitrogen that precipitates here mainly comes from the so-called ‘nitrogen blanket’. That term refers to the total nitrogen in the atmosphere that covers our country like a blanket, and that comes from a multitude of both agricultural and industrial sources.
Model and measurements
According to the researchers, their results are in line with other studies. The team also compared how well their findings correspond with the predicted spatial distribution of nitrogen deposition around the farms based on the RIVM's OPS model. The model appeared to slightly underestimate how much nitrogen ends up within 15 meters of a stable, but beyond that the predictions appeared to agree well with the direct measurements. Tietema: 'We saw that the predictions became more accurate as more characteristics of the specific farm were included in the model, instead of based on a standard model farm. For example, the number and size of the openings through which nitrogen emissions occur is an important factor to take into consideration.'