Christina Eckes is professor of European law at the University of Amsterdam and director of the Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance (ACELG).
Her research interests are integration and disintegration dynamics in EU law and the legal limits to European integration. This builds on her research on the internal constitutional consequences of the European Union's external actions, a comprehensive account of which was published as a monograph entitled EU Powers under External Pressure - How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures (Oxford University Press, 2019).
Previously, she published widely on EU restrictive measures (EU sanctions) and the constitutional considerations surrounding these measures, including a monograph entitled EU Counter-Terrorist Policies and Fundamental Rights - The Case of Individual Sanctions (Oxford University Press, 2009) which is the leading text on this topic. In 2011, Christina Eckes was awarded a personal research grant by the Dutch Scientific Organization (NWO) for her research project entitled: Outside-In: Tracing the Imprint of the European Union's External Actions on Its Constitutional Landscape. She spent the academic year 2012/2013 as Emile Noël Fellow-in-residence at New York University and March to June 2014 as a visiting researcher at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin.
Christina Eckes joined the University of Amsterdam in September 2008. Previously, she completed her PhD research at the Centre of European Law at King's College London, which was fully funded by a university scholarship and worked as lecturer in EU law at the University of Surrey, UK (2007-2008). She also holds an LL.M (2003) from the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, and passed First State Examination in Germany (2002).
see reviews: Luke A.R. Butler, European Law Review 2010, p. 739; Martin Scheinin, Yearbook of European Law 2010, p. 539; Cian Murphy, European Human Rights Law Review 2011, p. 120; Maria Tzanou, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 2124; Iris Canor, Leiden Journal of International Law 2012, p. 243.
see reviews: Elaine Fahey, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 1737; Wanni Teo, Yearbook of European Law 2012, p. 1.
How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures
Past PhD Researchers
EU external actions have deep constitutional and institutional implications for EU law and practice. The EU has become an ever more active in international relations. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU’s competences in external relations have again further strengthened. As a result, the EU has become ever more active in external relations. This has in turn intensifies the internal constitutional and institutional effects of EU external actions.
This book traces these legal effects and the broader constitutional implications, including potential integrative forces. EU external actions affect the power division between the EU and its Member States and between the different EU institutions; the unity and autonomy of the EU legal order; the role and position of Member States on the international plane; their autonomy; the relationship between national, international and EU law; and the ability of EU citizens to identify who is responsible for a particular action or policy, as well as their legitimate expectation that the EU takes action on their behalf.
The different chapters demonstrate how the interpretation of organizational principles, such as sincere cooperation, subsidiarity, primacy and coherence, changes in the context of external relations; how the choice of an external legal basis rather than an internal legal basis affects the powers of the Union and its Member States; what power shifts happen when policies are determined in international agreements, rather than in internal decision-making; and how EU participation in international dispute settlement mechanisms affects the autonomy and legitimacy of the EU.