Fotograaf: Teska Overbeeke

mw. prof. dr. A.P. (Anita) Hardon

  • Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen
    Programmagroep: Anthropology of Health, Care and the Body
  • Bezoekadres
    REC BC
    Nieuwe Achtergracht 166  Amsterdam
    Kamernummer: C5.09
  • Postadres:
    Postbus  15509
    1001 NA  Amsterdam
    T: 0205253544
    T: 0205252504

Main academic achievements

Groundwork for the anthropological study of pharmaceuticals 

With her colleagues Sjaak van der Geest and Susan Whyte, Anita Hardon spearheaded the anthropological study of pharmaceuticals, culminating in an article in the Annual Review of Anthropology (1996) and the seminal book The Social Lives of Medicines (2002). These publications laid the groundwork for the subsequent anthropological study of pharmaceuticals, which until then had received scant attention.

Insights in technologies and medicines

Over the past decade, she has further been engaged in ambitious multi-level and multi-sited ethnographies on immunization, new sexual and reproductive technologies and AIDS medicines. Her research has generated important ethnographic insights on the appropriation of these technologies in diverse social-cultural settings, their efficacy in everyday life, the role of social movements in their design, and the dynamics of care and policy-making in their provision.

Social and academic impact

She makes communicating research findings to patient advocates, policy-makers, and public health researchers and practitioners a priority. This has led to changes in health policies, documentaries on the ‘lived effects’ of medicines, and favourable reviews of her work in high impact medical journals such as The Lancet (1988 and 2005) and Nature (2004). Each of her collaborative ethnographies involved several scientific grants and produced cutting-edge medical anthropological understandings, reflected in publications in top social science and public health journals (with a Hirsch index of 25, and over 2800 citations to her work).

Medicines and the world's poor

Starting in 1987, her focus was on the ‘Global Diffusion of Modern Pharmaceuticals in Primary Health Care’. Building on her PhD research on self-medication in an urban slum in the Philippines, Hardon subsequently pursued comparative research in Uganda and Pakistan, highlighting how the effects of medicines were culturally re-interpreted and how self-care using modern pharmaceuticals was pervasive among the world’s poor.

Gender, reproductive health and population policies 

From 1992, she developed and implemented a multi-country program on ‘Gender, Reproductive Health and Population Policies’, conducted in ten countries around Europe, Africa, Asia and South-America, and funded by the EU Fifth Framework Programme and the Dutch ministry for Foreign Affairs.

In two articles in Social Science and Medicine (1992 and 2006) and in several books, she describes how women’s health advocates and consumers have influenced product design. Whereas she aligned herself with the poor who lacked access to decent health care, she engaged in reflexive dialogue with both the users and designers of technologies, contributing to the creation of institutional mechanisms through which users could exert more influence on design processes.

AIDS medicines in resource poor settings 

When large-scale AIDS medicines programs were established in 2004, she developed the ‘AIDS Medicines in Resource Poor Settings’ research program, engaging 12 PhD students in Asia and Africa and 2 post- docs. The early results were presented in a seminal 2007 article in AIDS Care, which revealed that transportation costs and waiting times were key barriers to access for the poor in Africa.

The program generated new insights on how social forms travel with technologies to diverse settings, changing care arrangements and in situ and how social and cultural factors influence the (appropriate use) of AIDS medicines.

The findings were published in four agenda-setting special issues:

  • Medical Anthropology published two special issues: AIDS medicines in East African Health Institutions which Anita Hardon edited with Hansjoerg Dilger of the University of Berlin (2011), and Why HIV remains exceptional in the Age of Treatment (2014)
  • Culture, Health and Sexuality published Secrecy as embodied practice: beyond the confessional imperative (2014) which she edited with Deborah Posel of the University of Cape Town
  • Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS published the special issue Disclosure in Times of ART: A relational analysis of social practices (2013) which she edited with Alice Desclaux of Institute de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD) and Joe Lugalla of the University of New Hampshire

Chemical Youth

In 2012 she was awarded an ERC advanced grant for her current multi-sited ‘Chemical Youth’ project. This comparative ethnography aims to understand what chemical and pharmaceutical substances, and not only illicit narcotics, ‘do’ for youths. How are chemicals a part of their everyday lives? What role do they play in calming their fears or in achieving their dreams and aspirations? How can we understand the ways in which chemicals affect their bodies and minds?

To answer these questions she draws on her past work on the social lives of pharmaceuticals, and combines research repertoires from various disciplines - most notably medical anthropology, science and technology studies and youth studies. The social aim is to learn how, beyond policing and regulating transgressions, it will be possible to set up programs and interactive websites that support youth.

Intensive guidance to young researchers

Over the course of these research programs, she has provided intensive guidance to young researchers, engaging them in the joint writing of books and articles. She has organized PhD workshops with international colleagues and has supervised over 19 PhD students to successful completion. Many of Hardon’s former PhD students now have prominent positions in academic institutions.  Her work has further had an impact on the field of global health through the development of innovative research frameworks and methodologies. Applied Health Research: Anthropology of Health and Health Care (2001) is now used in numerous teaching centres, and the Manual How to investigate the use of drug use by consumers (WHO 2004), has been used in over 35 countries worldwide. Together with Lenore Manderson and Liz Cartwright has been awarded a contract by Routledge for a Medical Anthropology handbook (Vital Signs, to be published in 2015).

Technical advisor for the World Health Organization

The social impact of her studies has been leveraged through her role as technical advisor for the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and health-related non-governmental organizations, while a popular article written for Health Action International led to changes in how the Global Alliance for Vaccination implemented its programs. The article ‘Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: Time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa’ that Anita Hardon and co-authors (many of whom front-line health workers in Africa) wrote in 2007 became one of the three most cited AIDS Care articles from 2003-2012.

Health, Care and the Body research program

Under her leadership, the Health, Care and the Body research program at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR) has become known as the European leader in medical anthropology and global health.  The program has been awarded a 8 prestigious grants of the European Research Council (totalling 18 million Euro’s external funding) in the past five years. The University of Amsterdam has recognized Global Health as one of its ten priority research areas.

Scientific Director of the AISSR

Between 2001 and 2014 Anita Hardon has been the Scientific Director of the AISSR, where she built on the institute’s traditions of scholarship to generate new internationally recognized cross-disciplinary synergies. The AISSR employs 200 researchers and was recognized in 2011 and 2013 by Times Higher Education as the leading centre for the social sciences in continental Europe. 

For her PhD research Hardon did extensive anthropological fieldwork on self care in urban poor communities in Manila. Since, she has been involved in comparative studies of health care arrangements, focusing on the global diffusion of contraceptive technologies and modern pharmaceuticals in primary health and family planning programs, on programs to limit the transmission of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases and on global efforts to immunize the world's children. The studies involve anthropological fieldwork in different socio-cultural settings, at global, national and local levels of health care usually by a team of researchers.

Hardon contributes to the development of research frameworks/methodologies, fieldwork/guidance of researchers,and   comparative analysis ofresults. Based on her expertise she has also contributed to evaluations of global health programs for external agencies. The following gives an overview of her main research contributions:

  • Project leader Multi-country African study on Testing and Counseling for HIV (MATCH) . In collaboration with WHO, with support from NIH, 2007-2012.
  • Project leader Learning by doing: enhancing treatment literacy and addressing sexual and reproductive health of PLWA in Eastern Africa . In Collaboration with ITM, KIT, CF with support from Aids Fonds, 2007-2010.
  • Director IS-Academy HIV-AIDS , Research-Policy partnership program withthe Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005-2009.
  • Project leader Preventing mother to child transmission in Vietnam and Indonesia: diverging care logics . In collaboration with Medical Committee Netherlands Vietnam (MCNV) and Yayasan Pelitu Ilmu (YPI), with support from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005-2008.
  • Program director Aids Medicines in Resource Poor Settings Research Programme, conducted by the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, support from AIDS fonds, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Studies conductedfrom 2005 onwards in Vietnam, Indonesia, Uganda, South Africa, Mali and Burkina Faso.
  • Advisor, collaborative study on ARV adherence , funded by WHO-EDM, conducted in Uganda, Tanzania and Botswana, 2004-2005.
  • Program director. Diversity among patients in medical practice. Challenges and implications for clinical research. In collaboration with the Amsterdam Medical Center, commissioned by ZonMw, 2004-2005.
  • Principal investigator Comparative assessment of public-private interactions to increase access to HIV-AIDS medicines . Country studies in Ghana, Kenya, Peru, Moldova, Vietnam and Thailand. Funded by DANIDA. Implemented by Health Action International, 2004-2006.
  • Senior researcher/advisor Evaluation ten-years international health/nutrition/population development aid , research grant from the Policy and   Operations EvaluationDepartment,Netherlands Ministry of ForeignAffairs (2000/1).
  • Principal investigator Review of EC-support to HIV/AIDS/STD projects in Asia under B76211 for South and South-east Asia,1998-1999, Research Grant European Commission, IHS-TAN (1998-1999).
  • Senior Researcher Quality of Care in Reproductive Health , Concerted Action (coordinated by the International Center for Reproductive Health, University of Ghent), specifically a critical appraisal of the integration of STI/HIV prevention and control in PHC,research grant from the European Commission, DG XII program for scientific collaboration, 1998-2001.
  • Principal Researcher   Donor assistance in increasing access to HIV-related drugs , research grant from the World Health Organization, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Department and UNAIDS (1999-2000).
  • Researcher joint   program Gender and women's sexual and reproductive practices and health care in Metropolitan Cape Town , implemented by the Department of Anthropology and Sociology of the University of the Western Cape and the Medical Anthropology Unit, research grant from the South Africa-Netherlands Research Program on Alternatives in Development (1998-2000).
  • Researcher: Biographies of the contraceptive pill in the Netherlands and the Philippines. Sub-project of themulti-country study "Gender, Reproductive Health, and Population Policies" with support from ASSR (1996-1999).
  • Scientific projectleader " Global Programming and Technology Development ", part of the Social Science and Immunization project (1995-1998), research grant from DGIS and DANIDA, in cooparation with Institute for Health Policy Studies, Universtity of California; Center for Development Economics, Dehli School of Economics; de La Salle University, Philippines, 1994 - 1999.
  • Scientific project leader Community DrugUseIntervention Study in Uganda, carried out by Makerere Institute for Social Research with Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, research grant from DANIDA, 1996 - 2000.
  • Principal investigator Acceptation of vaccination among migrants in the Netherlands . Research grant: the Dutch Ministry VWS (1996-1998).
  • Senior researcher. Quality of Care and adherence to reproductive rights in family planning programs with the Women's Health Action Foundation, Am-sterdam (1993-1996), research grant by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands.
  • International scientific project leader : multi-country study Gender, Reproductive Health, and Population Policies , research grant from the Dutch Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 1992 to present. Conducted in the Netherlands, the Philippines, India, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mexico, Bolivia and Brazil (1993- 2001).
  • International research-coordinator : Collaborative Project on Community Drug Use , in cooperation with Community Medicine Development Foundation (COMMED), the Philippines; Aga Khan Health Services, Pakistan;   Makerere Institute for Social Research (Uganda), Department of Anthropology, the University of Copenhagen and the Royal Tropical Institute, research grant from the European Commission, DG XII for Scientific cooperation, Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UNICEF, WHO, and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1991 to 1997.
  • Project-coordinator: Sustainability of Primary Health Care in Africa: Community Financing and Community Participation , for Health Action International, in cooperation with UNICEF and OXFAM: feasibility study and preparation   ofa StudyConference in Sierre Leone. Research grantsfrom the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs(Department of Development Cooperation), the British Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), UNICEF, OXFAM and Save the Children Fund, 1989-1990.
  • Consultant to the Royal Tropical Institute for the Evaluation of WHO's Action Programme on Essential Drugs . January - December l990, specific responsibility for the assessment of DAP's communication strategy, and operational research.
  • PhD researcher: Medicines, self-care and the poor in Manila , for the Department of Anthropology, University of Amsterdam, with the Community BasedHealth Programs in the Philippines (l985 - l989).
  • Researcher : Cognitive change in clinical research on Chronic Non- Specific Lung Diseases . Under Supervision of Drs. A. Hiddinga. Department of Science Dynamics, University of Amterdam (1984 -1985).
  • Researcher : Nutrition and infectious diseases of pre-schoolchildren in rural communities in the Philippines . Under supervision of Dr. J. Kusin, Deparment of Nutrition, Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam and Human Ecology Institute, University of the Philippines at Los Banos (l982 - l983).



  • Berning, M., & Hardon, A. (2016). Educated Guesses and Other Ways to Address the Pharmacological Uncertainty of Designer Drugs: An Exploratory Study of Experimentation Through an Online Drug Forum. Contemporary Drug Problems, 43(3), 277-292. DOI: 10.1177/0091450916662164 [details] [PDF]
  • Hardon, A., & Hymans, T. D. (2016). Guest Editors’ Introduction: Harm Reduction From Below. Contemporary Drug Problems, 43(3), 191-198. DOI: 10.1177/0091450916663247 [details] [PDF]
  • Hardon, A., & Pool, R. (2016). Anthropologists in Global Health Experiments. Medical Anthropology, 35(5), 447-451. DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2016.1177046 [details]
  • Pell, C., Allotey, P., Evans, N., Hardon, A., Imelda, J. D., Soyiri, I., ... The SEACO Team (2016). Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia. BMC Public Health, 16, [1082]. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3746-x [details] [PDF]
  • Vernooij, E., Mehlo, M., Hardon, A., & Reis, R. (2016). Access for all: contextualising HIV treatment as prevention in Swaziland. AIDS Care, 28(supp 3), 7-13. DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2016.1178954 [details] [PDF]


  • Dedding, C., Reis, R., Wolf, B., & Hardon, A. (2015). Revealing the hidden agency of children in a clinical setting. Health Expectations, 18(6), 2121-2128. DOI: 10.1111/hex.12180 [details]
  • Hardon, A., & Idrus, N. I. (2015). Magic Power: changing gender dynamics and sex-enhancement practices among youths in Makassar, Indonesia. Anthropology & Medicine, 22(1), 49-63. DOI: 10.1080/13648470.2015.1010114 [details]
  • Carrique-Mas, J. J., Trung, N. V., Hoa, N. T., Mai, H. H., Thanh, T. H., Campbell, J. I., ... Schultsz, C. (2015). Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Zoonoses and Public Health, 62(s1), 70-78. DOI: 10.1111/zph.12165 [details] [PDF]
  • Nguyen, V. T., Carrique-Mas, J. J., Ngo, T. H., Ho, H. M., Ha, T. T., Campbell, J. I., ... Schultsz, C. (2015). Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli on household and small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(7), 2144-2152. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv053 [details] [PDF]
  • Pordié, L., & Hardon, A. (2015). Drugs' stories and itineraries. On the making of Asian industrial medicines. Anthropology & Medicine, 22(1), 1-6. DOI: 10.1080/13648470.2015.1020745 [details]



  • Gerrits, T., Reis, R., Braat, D. D. M., Kremer, J. A. M., & Hardon, A. P. (2013). Bioethics in practice: Addressing ethically sensitive requests in a Dutch fertility clinic. Social Science & Medicine, 98, 330-339. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.12.031 [details]
  • Hardon, A., Desclaux, A., & Lugalla, J. (2013). Editorial: Disclosure in times of ART: A relational analysis of social practices. SAHARA-J, 10(S1), S1-S4. DOI: 10.1080/02664763.2012.755317 [details] [PDF]
  • Hardon, A., Gomez, G. B., Vernooij, E., Desclaux, A., Wanyenze, R. K., Ky-Zerbo, O., ... Obermeyer, C. M. (2013). Do support groups members disclose less to their partners? The dynamics of HIV disclosure in four African countries. BMC Public Health, 13, 589. [589]. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-589 [details] [PDF]
  • Hardon, A., Idrus, N. I., & Hymans, T. D. (2013). Chemical sexualities: the use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Reproductive health matters, 21(41), 214-224. DOI: 10.1016/S0968-8080(13)41709-3 [details]
  • Moyer, E., Kageha Igonya, E., Both, R., Cherutich, P., & Hardon, A. (2013). The duty to disclose in Kenyan health facilities: a qualitative investigation of HIV disclosure in everyday practice. SAHARA-J, 10(S1), S60-S72. DOI: 10.1080/02664763.2012.755339 [details] [PDF]
  • Vernooij, E., & Hardon, A. (2013). 'What mother wouldn't want to save her baby?' HIV testing and counselling practices in a rural Ugandan antenatal clinic. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 15(S4), S553-S566. DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2012.758314 [details]
  • Kyaddondo, D., Wanyenze, R. K., Kinsman, J., & Hardon, A. (2013). Disclosure of HIV status between parents and children in Uganda in the context of greater access to treatment. SAHARA-J, 10(S1), S37-S45. DOI: 10.1080/02664763.2012.755323 [details] [PDF]
  • Obermeyer, C. M., Neuman, M., Hardon, A., Desclaux, A., Wanyenze, R., Ky-Zerbo, O., ... Namakhoma, I. (2013). Socio-economic determinants of HIV testing and counselling: a comparative study in four African countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 18(9), 1110-1118. DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12155 [details]
  • Stronks, K., Wieringa, N. F., & Hardon, A. (2013). Confronting diversity in the production of clinical evidence goes beyond merely including under-represented groups in clinical trials. Trials, 14, 177. [177]. DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-177 [details] [PDF]
  • Wanyenze, R. K., Kyaddondo, D., Kinsman, J., Makumbi, F., Colebunders, R., & Hardon, A. (2013). Client-provider interactions in provider-initiated and voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Uganda. BMC Health Services Research, 13, 423. [423]. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-423 [details] [PDF]


  • Hardon, A. (2012). Biomedical hype and hopes: AIDS medicines for Africa. In P. W. Geissler, R. Rottenburg, & J. Zenker (Eds.), Rethinking biomedicine and governance in Africa: contributions from anthropology. (pp. 77-96). (VerKörperungen; No. 15). Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. [details]
  • Hardon, A. (2012). The turn to female-controlled safe sex technologies. In L. Manderson (Ed.), Technologies of sexuality, identity and sexual health. (pp. 55-72). (Sexuality, culture and health). London: Routledge. [details]
  • Hardon, A., & Beaudevin, C. (2012). Medical anthropologists in Europe connect. Anthropology & Medicine, 19(1), 6-7. DOI: 10.1080/13648470.2012.688344 [details]
  • Hardon, A., & Posel, D. (2012). Editorial introduction: Secrecy as embodied practice: beyond the confessional imperative. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 14(S1), S1-S13. DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2012.726376 [details]
  • Hardon, A., Vernooij, E., Bongololo-Mbera, G., Cherutich, P., Desclaux, A., Kyaddondo, D., ... Obermeyer, C. (2012). Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries. BMC Public Health, 12, 26. [26]. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-26 [details] [PDF]
  • Kyakuwa, M., & Hardon, A. (2012). Concealment tactics among HIV-positive nurses in Uganda. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 14(S1), S123-S133. DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2012.716452 [details] [PDF]
  • Kyakuwa, M., Hardon, A., & Goldstein, Z. (2012). "The adopted children of ART": expert clients and role tensions in ART provision in Uganda. Medical Anthropology, 31(2), 149-161. DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2011.603399 [details]
  • Obermeyer, C. M., Neuman, M., Desclaux, A., Wanyenze, R., Ky-Zerbo, O., Cherutich, P., ... Hardon, A. (2012). Associations between mode of HIV testing and consent, confidentiality, and referral: a comparative analysis in four African countries. PLoS Medicine, 9(10), e1001329. [e1001329]. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001329 [details] [PDF]
  • Kyaddondo, D., Wanyenze, R. K., Kinsman, J., & Hardon, A. (2012). Home-based HIV counseling and testing: client experiences and perceptions in Eastern Uganda. BMC Public Health, 12, 966. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-966 [details] [PDF]


  • Hardon, A., & Dilger, H. (2011). Global AIDS medicines in East African health institutions. Medical Anthropology, 30(2), 136-157. DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2011.552458 [details]
  • Hardon, A., Kageha, E., Kinsman, J., Kyaddondo, D., Wanyenze, R., & Obermeyer, C. M. (2011). Dynamics of care, situations of choice: HIV tests in times of ART. Medical Anthropology, 30(2), 183-201. DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2011.552455 [details]


  • Hardon, A. (2010). From subaltern alignment to constructive mediation: modes of feminist engagement in the design of reproductive technologies. In L. L. Layne, S. L. Vostral, & K. Boyer (Eds.), Feminist technology (pp. 154-178). (Women, gender, and technology). Urbana: University of Illinois Press. [details]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2010). Access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission program: obstacles and implications. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., Oosterhoff, P., Imelda, J. D., Anh, N. T., & Hidayana, I. (2009). Preventing mother to child transmission of HIV in Vietnam and Indonesia: diverging care dynamics. Social Science & Medicine, 69(6), 838-845. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.05.043 [details]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Oosterhoff, P., Hardon, A., Ngoc, Y. P., Tran, H. N., Coutinho, R. A., & Wright, P. (2009). Availability and accessibility of HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women in Hanoi, Vietnam. Asian Journal of Medical Science, 1(1), 1-11. [details]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Oosterhoff, P., Yen, P. N., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2009). Self-help groups can improve utilization of post-natal care by HIV-positive mothers. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 20(2), 141-152. DOI: 10.1016/j.jana.2008.10.006 [details]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Oosterhoff, P., Yen, P. N., Hardon, A., & Wright, P. (2009). Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and post-natal care for HIV-infected women and their children. Human Resources for Health, 7(39). DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-7-39 [details] [PDF]
  • Oosterhoff, P., Nguyen, T. A., Pham, N. Y., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2009). Recreating kinship: coping options of HIV+ AIDS widows in Vietnam. Health Care for Women International, 31(1), 17-36. DOI: 10.1080/07399330903133424 [details]


  • Hardon, A., Desclaux, A., Egrot, M., Simon, E., Micollier, E., & Kyakuwa, M. (2008). Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4(16). DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-4-16 [details] [PDF]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Oosterhoff, P. P. J., Yen, P. N., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. P. (2008). Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam. AIDS Research and Therapy, 5(7). DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-5-7 [details] [PDF]
  • Nguyen, T. A., Oosterhoff, P., Hardon, A., Tran, H. N., Coutinho, R. A., & Wright, P. (2008). A hidden HIV epidemic among women in Vietnam. BMC Public Health, 8, 37. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-37 [details] [PDF]
  • Oosterhoff, P., Nguyen, T. A., Yen, P. N., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2008). HIV-positive mothers in Viet Nam: using their status to build support groups and access essential services. Reproductive health matters, 16(32), 162-170. DOI: 10.1016/S0968-8080(08)32408-2 [details]
  • Oosterhoff, P., Hardon, A. P., Nguyen, T. A., Pham, N. Y., & Wright, P. (2008). Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing of pregnant women in Vietnam. AIDS Care, 20(6), 654-659. DOI: 10.1080/09540120701687026 [details]
  • Oosterhoff, P., Nguyen, T. A., Ngo, T. H., Pham, N. Y., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2008). Holding the line: Family responses to pregnancy and the desire for a child in the context of HIV in Vietnam. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 10(4), 403-416. DOI: 10.1080/13691050801915192 [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., Akurut, D., Comoro, C., Ekezie, C., Irunde, H. F., Gerrits, T., ... Laing, R. (2007). Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa. AIDS Care, 19(5), 658-665. DOI: 10.1080/09540120701244943 [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2006). Confronting the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: policy versus practice. International Social Science Journal, 57(186), 601-605. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2451.2005.00577.x [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (2006). Contraceptive Innovation: Reinventing the Script. Social Science & Medicine, 62(3), 614-627. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.035 [details]
  • van der Geest, S., & Hardon, A. (2006). Social and cultural efficacies of medicines: complications for antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2(48). DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-48 [details] [PDF]


  • Hardon, A., & Blume, S. (2005). Shifts in global immunisation goals (1984-2004): unfinished agendas and mixed results. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2), 345-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.008 [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2004). Immunization. In C. R. Ember, & M. Ember (Eds.), Health, Illness and the World's Cultures. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (2004). Shifts in global immunization goals (1984-2004): unfinished agendas and mixed results. Social Science & Medicine, 60(2). [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Medawar, C. (2004). Medicines Out of Control? Antidepressants and the Conspiracy of Goodwill. Amsterdam: Aksant. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2003). New WHO leader should aim for equity and confront undue commercial influences. Lancet, 361(9351). DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12177-0 [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (2003). Reproductive Health Care in the Netherlands: would integration improve it. Reproductive health matters, 21(11), 1-15. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2002). Dominante anticonceptiepraktijken verklaard. Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies[details]
  • Whyte, S. R., van der Geest, S., & Hardon, A. (2002). Social lives of medicines. (Cambridge studies in medical anthropology; No. 10). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2001). Betyr GAVI vaksiner til alle? Bistandaktuelt: fagblad om utviklingssamarbeid, 18[details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Wolffers, I. (2001). Geen geld, geen zorg, geen geneesmiddelen. Behandeling van AIDS in ontwikkelingslanden. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad, 136(5), 183-186. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Gerrits, T. (2001). Social and cultural aspects of being infertile in Africa. In Sexual and Reproductive health: recent advances, future directions. New Delhi: New Age International. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., & Streefland, P. H. (2000). SIDA en Afrique; A quand la Grande Peur de l'Occident? Critique Internationale, 9, 15-20. [details]
  • Streefland, P. H., & Hardon, A. P. (2000). SIDA en Afrque: A quand la grande peur de l'Occident? Critique Internationale, 9, 15-21. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1999). Mother's and Children's: Notions of efficacy. In Materia Medica. Cambridge University Press. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1998). Beyond rhetoric: participatory research on reproductive health. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1998). Contextualizing reproductive health care. In P. Streefland (Ed.), Problems and potential in international health: transdisciplinary perspectives. (pp. 121-143). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1998). Ten geleide: reproductieve gezondheid en cultuur. Medische Antropologie, 10(1), 1-7. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Tan, M. (1998). Introduction. In A. P. Hardon (Ed.), Beyond Rhetoric: participatory research on reproductive health. (pp. 1-7). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Streefland, P. H. (1998). Medicine markets and public health. In A. Gevers (Ed.), Uit de Zevende: vijftig jaar politieke en sociaal-culturele wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. (pp. 372-383). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & van Zorge, R. (1998). De pil, controle en seksualiteit: een exploratief onderzoek naar pilgebruik onder Nederlandse meiden. Medische Antropologie, 10(1), 19-32. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1997). Reproduktieve gezondheid in cultureel perspectief: thema's voor een symposium. Medische Antropologie, 9(1), 168-176. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Engelkes, E., Kabir, S., & Mutua, A. (1997). Reproductive rights in practice: a manual for empowerment. London: Zed Books. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1996). Community Drug Use in four countries. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1996). Policy and Practice in Family Planning: a comparative assessment. London: Zed Books. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1996). Choices in Childbearing: when does Family Planning become Population Control [Review of: R. Whelan. -]. Social Science & Medicine, 12, 1579-1580. [details]
  • van der Geest, J. D. M., Hardon, A. P., & Whyte, S. R. (1996). The anthropology of pharmaceuticals: A biographical approach. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 153-178. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.25.1.153 [details]
  • Streefland, P., Rasmussen, Z., Rahim, M., & Hardon, A. P. (1996). Enhancing Appropriate Medicine Use in the Karakoram Mountains. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1995). Changing normality: pregnancy and scientific knowledge claims 1920-1950, with special reference to the USA [Review of: A. Hiddinga (1995) recensie]. Medische Antropologie, 7(2), 347-350. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1995). De gyneacologie als belichaming van vrouwen: verloskunde en gynaecologie 1840-1920 [Review of: L. Schoon (1995) recensie]. Medische Antropologie, 7(2), 370-373. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1995). Dealing with abiguity constructively: women and the contraceptive pill. In S. van der Geest (Ed.), Ambivalentie/Ambugu?teit: Antropologische notities. (pp. 35-41). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1995). Gender, Sexual and Reproductive Health: a review of selectes recent publications. In Advancing woman's status: Woman and men together. (pp. 119-157). Amsterdam: KIT. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1995). Het gelijk van de spreekkamer. Zeno, (1), 20-24. [details]


  • Hardon, A. (2015). The ethnography of everyday life: Honouring the work of Sjaak van der Geest. Medicine Anthropology Theory, 2(2), 72-78. [details]


  • Burchardt, M., Hardon, A., & de Klerk, J. (2009). Faith matters: religion and biomedical treatment for HIV/Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa. Diemen: AMB Publishers. [details]


  • Oosterhoff, P., Nguyen, T. A., Pham, N. Y., Wright, P., & Hardon, A. (2008). Can micro-credit empower HIV+ women? An exploratory case study in Northern Vietnam. Women’s Health & Urban Life, 7(1), 40-55. [details] [PDF]


  • Hardon, A. P., & Gerrits, T. (2004). Applied Health Research Manual : Anthropology of Health and Health Care. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2002). Contraceptive Pill and Autonomy. In E. Lammers (Ed.), Making Waves: Inspiring critical and feminist anthropology. LOVA. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (2002). Preface. In S. van der Geest, & R. Reis (Eds.), Ethnocentrism, reflections on medical anthropology. Amsterdam: Aksant. [details]


  • Gerrits, T., Hardon, A., & Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M. (1996). "Preferably half a Tablet." Health seeking behaviour when Dutch children get ill. In P. J. Bush, D. J. Trakas, & et al (Eds.), Children, Medicines and Culture.. (pp. 209-224). USA: Haworth Press. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Streefland, P. (1996). Evaluating Effects of Rational Drug Use Interventions: A research Note for the Collaborative Project on Community Drug Use. Medical Anthropology Unit[details]


  • Hardon, A. P., & van Staa, A. (1995). Injection practices on the developing world: Results and recommendations from field studies in Uganda and Indonesia. Unknown Publisher. [details]


  • van der Geest, S., & Hardon, A. P. (1994). Sociale en culturele betekenissen van injecties. In S. van der Geest, P. ten Have, & G. Nijhof (Eds.), De macht der dingen : medische technologie in cultureel perspectief. (pp. 138-158). (Health, culture and society). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., Davey, S., & Gerrits, G. J. E. (2006). From access to adherence: the challenges of antiretroviral treatment. Studies from Botswana, Tanzania and Uganda. Geneva: WHO. [details] [PDF]
  • Hardon, A. P., Gerrits, G. J. E., & Kinsman, F. J. (2006). On hunger, transport costs and waiting time: a synthesis of challenges to ARV adherence in three African countries. In A. P. Hardon, S. Davey, & T. Gerrits (Eds.), From access to adherence: the challenges of antiretroviral treatment. Studies from Botswana, Tanzania and Uganda. Geneve: WHO. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., Stegeman, M., Saeed Hattab, A., Mohamed Assabri, A., & El-arimy, E. (2002). Health, nutrition and population. Dutch Support to Programmes and Projects in Yemen 1995-1999. Den Haag: Ministry of foreign affairs. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Stegeman, M., & Gerrits, T. (2002). Synthesis report. Health, Nutrition and Population: Burkina Faso, Yemen, Mozambique. 1995-1999. Den Haag: Ministry of Foreign Affairs / IOB. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (2000). Synthesis Report of the evaluation of Dutch development cooperation in the area of health, nutrition and population. Den Haag: Ministry of foreign affairs. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Stegeman, M. (2000). Proposed evaluation framework and methodology for the evaluation of Dutch support to health-, nutrition- and populationprojects and programs in developing countries. Den Haag: Ministerie van WVC. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Birungi, H., & Reynolds Whyte, S. (2000). Community Drug Use Project: Research and Action. Kopenhagen: DANIDA. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P., & Gerrits, G. J. E. (1999). A bull is not a Bull without a Scar: Results of a literature review on how men and women in Sub-Saharan Africa percieve, prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections. In A bull is not a bull without a Scar. Amsterdam. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1998). Report Review of the HIV/AIDS/STD response in the Philippines. Unknown Publisher. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1997). Contesting claims on the safety and acceptability of anti-fertility vaccines. Reproductive health matters, 10, 68-82. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P. (1997). Women's views and experiences of hormonal contraceptives: what we know and what we need to find out. In Beyond acceptability: users' perspectives on contraception. Reproductive health matters, 68-78. [details]


  • Hardon, A. P. (1996). Norplant: Conflicting views on its Safety and Acceptablity. In J. Hanhart, B. Mintzes, & A. P. Hardon (Eds.), Norplant: Under her Skin. (pp. 7-26). Delft: Eburon. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & le Grand, A. (1996). Pharmaceuticals in Communities: Practices, Public Health Consequences and Intervention Strategies. Royal Tropical Institute, Bulletin, 330[details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Boonmongkon, P., Streefland, P., Tan, M. L., Hongvivatana, T., van der Geest, J. D. M., ... Varkevisser, C. M. (1996). Applied Health Research Manual: Anthropology of Health and Health Care. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., van Maaren, P. J. M., van Mil, J. W. F., Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M., & Dukes, M. N. G. (1996). Nederlandse Geneesmiddelen in ontwikkelingslanden: een Farmakologische Evaluatie. Groningen: Noordelijk Centrum voor Gezondheidsvraagstukken, RUG. [details]


  • Both, R. E. C. (2017). Sex, tensions and pills: Young people’s use of contemporary reproductive and sexual health technologies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia [details / files]
  • Gryseels, C. (2017). Resistant humans, mosquitos and parasites in Cambodia: Producing contested evidence for malaria elimination strategies in the margins of a repellent trial [details] [PDF]
  • Hendriks, J. T. (2017). Societal vaccinology: The Netherlands public sector vaccine development, production and technology transfer in the context of global health [details / files]
  • Lasco, G. (2017). Height matters: The making, meanings and materialities of human stature in the Philippines [details] [PDF]
  • Strong, A. E. (2017). The maternity ward as mirror: Maternal death, biobureaucracy, and institutional care in the Tanzanian health sector [details / files]
  • Dlamini, T. T. T. (2017). De-globalizing global public health: Travelling HIV treatment policies and their imprints on the local healthcare settings in Swaziland [details / files]


  • Hardon, A.P. (2013): European Research Council Advanced Grant. ChemicalYouth: What chemicals do for youths in their everyday lives, PI, seven PhD students (€ 2.5 million), 2012 t/m 2017.

Wetenschappelijke positie

  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2016): KNAW (External organisation).
  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2010-2011): Anthropologie & Santé: revue internationale francophone de l'antropologie de la Santé (External organisation).
  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2010-2011): Medical Anthropology Network of the European Association for Social Anthropology (External organisation).
  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2010-2014): AISSR-FMG-UvA (External organisation).
  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2010-2015): Priority Research Program Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG), Adaptation and Creativity in Africa: Significations and Technologies in the Making of Order and Disorder (SP1448) (External organisation).
  • Hardon, A.P. (member) (2008-2011): Aids Fonds / STOP AIDS NOW (External organisation).


  • Zeitlin, J.H. (organiser), Hardon, A.P. (organiser) & Bowen, J. (organiser) (4-6-2015 - 5-6-2015): international research workshop, Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research/ACCESS EUROPE, Amsterdam (organising a conference, workshop, ...).
  • Moyer, E.M. (participant) & Hardon, A.P. (participant) (2011): Panel co-organized for the American Anthropological Association Meetings, Montreal (participating in a conference, workshop, ...).
  • Moyer, E.M. (participant) & Hardon, A.P. (participant) (2011): Panel co-organized for the European Association of Social Anthropologists conference on Medical Pluralism, Rome (participating in a conference, workshop, ...).
  • Moyer, E.M. (participant), Hardon, A.P. (participant) & Kinsman, F.J. (participant) (2009): Co-organizer of HIV Policy Experts meeting, Amsterdam (participating in a conference, workshop, ...).


  • Hardon, A.P. (invited speaker) (18-10-2016): Anthropology in Global Health Trials, Invited lecture at Duke University, Health Humanities Lab and Franklin Humanities Institute, Durham, NC.
  • Hardon, A.P. (invited speaker) (21-10-2016): Integrating the Humanities into Health IRB and Grant Proposals, Invited lecture at Duke University, Health Humanites Lab and Franklin Humanities Institute, Durham, NC.
  • Hardon, A.P. (invited speaker) (21-6-2012): Adolescent sexual and reproductive health, UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Geneva.
  • Hardon, A.P. (invited speaker) (24-6-2012): New socialities and subjectivities in health care in the 21st century - taking stock, Seventh biennial conference Medical Anthropology at Home (MAAH), De Horst.


  • Hardon, A.P. (editor) & Moyer, E.M. (editor) (2014): Anthropology & Medicine (Journal).
  • Hymans, T.D. (editor) & Hardon, A.P. (editor) (2014): International Journal of Drug Policy (Journal).
  • Moyer, E.M. (editor) & Hardon, A.P. (editor) (2014): Medical Anthropology (Journal).
  • Hardon, A.P. (editor) (2010): AIDS Care (Journal).
  • Hardon, A.P. (editor) (2010): Medical Anthropology (Journal).
  • Hardon, A.P. (editor) (1998): Medische Antropologie (Journal).


  • Hadolt, B., & Hardon, A. (2017). New Socialities and Subjectivities in 21st Century Health Care. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. [details]
  • Manderson, L., Cartwright, E. J., & Hardon, A. P. (2016). The Routledge Handbook of Medical Anthropology. Oxford: Routledge. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Boomongkon, P., & Tan, E. (2001). Applied health research: anthropology of health and health care. Manual. - 3rd rev. ed. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., & Hayes, L. (1997). Reproductive rights in practice. London: Zed Books. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Mintzes, B., & Hanhart, J. (1996). Norplant: Under her Skin. Delft: Eburon. [details]
  • Hardon, A. P., Boomongkon, P., Streefland, P., Tim, M. L., Hongvivatana, T., van der Geest, J. D. M., ... Varkevisser, C. (1995). Applied Health Research Manual: Anthropology of Health and Health Care (2nd revised edition). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis. [details]
This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications.

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