Fotograaf: Danielle van der Spek

dhr. dr. S.F. (Samuël) Kruizinga

Nieuwste geschiedenis
  • Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen
    Capaciteitsgroep Geschiedenis
  • Bezoekadres
    Oost-Indisch Huis
    Kloveniersburgwal 48  Kamernummer: C 0.04
  • Postadres:
    Kloveniersburgwal  48
    1012 CX  Amsterdam
    T: 0205257733
    T: 0205254464

Biography and research interests

Samuël Kruizinga (1980) is assistant professor in contemporary history at the University of Amsterdam (UvA), and Programme Coordinator for the MA in Military History at the UvA. He studied at Leiden, Paris and Oxford, obtained his PhD in 2011 and is currently assistant professor in contemporary history at the University of Amsterdam. His research interests are the global impact of twentieth-century conflicts, currently focusing in particular on the First World War (1914-1918) and the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), and the role of small states in the international system since 1815. In 2016, Kruizinga is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Oxford Changing Character of War Programme based at Pembroke College.

This page contains information on my current and past research and teaching activities.

Current research projects

Currently I am engaged in three major research projects:

  • Hunger draws the map! This three year collaborative project brings together specialists working on different countries affected by the First World War to examine the impact of food shortages on societies during the conflict. We will consider both the causes (blockade as a mode of warfare, physical destruction and land loss) and the consequences of the reduced food supplies in various regions of the continent. Our goal is to compare the levels of hunger and the responses to it during and immediately after the First World War. This project is funded by a Leverhulme Trust International Network Grant.
  • Getting the Big Picture on Small States. At the moment, the field of small state studies is unable to provide the ‘big picture’ on the role of smaller state in Europe, as is it fragmented by language barriers and phenomenological and methodological dissension. This project will therefore bring together experts from different countries to develop a common methodological framework to study the influence of European smaller powers in the ‘modern’ international system since the 1815 Congress of Vienna. Central to our approach is the notion that ‘small state’ is not a fixed category, but a dynamic concept that is profoundly shaped by processes of (self-)identification. By exploring the nexus between these processes and foreign policy actions, we develop a systematic analysis of the way competing notions of ‘smallness’ have manifested themselves in international politics.
  • Foreign Fighters and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Mobilisation and ‘securitization’
    in Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium.
    This research project offers a new approach to the study of these International Brigades, by focusing not on their ideological commitment, their role in Soviet policy, or even their activities as part of the Republican war effort. Rather, it focuses on their recruitment and subsequent mobilisation: the difficult questions of how prospective volunteers for Spain were approached, the reasons that were given them for joining the International Brigades, and the processes of getting – and keeping – them in Spain. Additionally, it will analyse the various ways the International Brigaders’ mobilisation were painted by different groups of ‘securitizing agents’ as a threat and how they attempted to convince a critical mass of others of the veracity of their claims and the reality of the threat to the referent object. Most specifically, I will focus on the various ways in which the police, the judiciary and the intelligence and/or security services converted government policies into actual practices, and the impact these practices – operationally and as practical signifiers of the shifting boundaries of the rule of law – on both the foreign fighter mobilisation ànd the securitization processes itself. This project is funded by the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds and the Professor Van Winter-fonds. As part of this project, I am co-writing a new book together with dr Lodewijk Petram: see his homepage for more information.

Recent publications

My recent publications include a book on the Netherlands during the First World War (co-authored with Wim Klinkert and Paul Moeyes) and a scene-setting article on neutrality during 1914-1918 written for the new Cambridge History of the First World War. In the past, I co-authored (with Johan den Hertog) a collection of essays on First World War neutrals and neutrality, and wrote a Dutch-language book on the impact of First World War economic warfare on the Netherlands. For a complete overview, see the 'Publications' tab at the top of this page.


For a complete overview of the courses I currently teach, see the UvA Course Catalogue. For more information on the UvA MA in Military History, see the programme's home page.

Thesis supervision

I am available for (BA and MA) thesis supervision on any topic related to my research interests. Do not hesitate to e-mail me and make an appointment to discuss your (future) plans.


  • Kruizinga, S. F. (2018). Struggling to Fit In. The Dutch in a Transnational Army, 1936-1939. Journal of Modern European History, 16(2), 183-202.
  • Kruizinga, S. F., Kuitenbrouwer, J. J. V., van der Maar, R., & van Dijk, R. (2018). Introduction: A small state on the global scene. In Shaping the International Relations of The Netherlands, 1815-2000. A Small Country on the Global Scene (pp. 1-12). Routledge.
  • Kruizinga, S. F., van Dijk, R., Kuitenbrouwer, J. J. V., & van der Maar, R. (2018). Conclusions and outlook: Small states on the global scene. In Shaping the International Relations of The Netherlands, 1815-2000. A Small Country on the Global Scene (pp. 240-244). Routledge.


  • Kruizinga, S. (2017). Belgiës Grote Oorlog: [Bespreking van: L. De Vos (2014) '14-'18? Oorlog in België; S. De Schaepdrijver (2014) Bolwerk Brugge : bezette stad in 14-18]. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 130(1), 131-133. DOI: 10.5117/TVGESCH2017.1.BOEK  [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. F. (2017). Review of: H.P. van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Small Countries in a Big World. The Belgian-Dutch Conflict at Versailles, 1919. BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review. DOI: 10.18352/bmgn-lchr.10380 


  • Kruizinga, S. F. (2016). Neutrality. In 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.10844 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2016). A Small State? The Size of the Netherlands as a Focal Point in Foreign Policy Debates, 1900–1940. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 27(3), 420-436. DOI: 10.1080/09592296.2016.1196062  [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2016). Inleiding: Neutraal in een totale wereldoorlog. Tijdschrift voor Zeegeschiedenis, 35(1), 3-11. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2015). A Mobilisation to Remember: Some Reflections on Memory, Neutrality and the Afterimages of the First World War in the Netherlands, 1918-1939. In J-L. Ruiz Sánchez, I. Cordero Olivero, & C. García Sanz (Eds.), Shaping Neutrality throughout the First World War (pp. 401-422). (Colección Historia y geografía; No. 304). Sevilla: Editorial Universidad de Sevilla. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2015). Sailing in uncharted waters: Dutch steamship companies during the First World War, 1914-1918. International Journal of Maritime History, 27(2), 227-249. DOI: 10.1177/0843871415571044  [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. F. (2014). Netherlands Overseas Trust (NOT). In 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.10014 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). Les Neutres. In J. Winter (Ed.), La Première Guerre Mondiale. - 2: États (pp. 591-622, 855-857). Paris: Fayard.
  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). Neutrality. In J. Winter (Ed.), The Cambridge History of the First World War. - Volume 2: The State (pp. 542-575). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CHO9780511675676.025  [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). Profeten links en rechts, de wereldoorlog in het midden: het politieke gedachtegoed van M.W.F. Treub tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Tijdschrift voor Biografie, 3(2), 35-45. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). Voorbij de Pacificatie: het vechtkabinet van oorlogspremier Cort van der Linden (1913-1918) en de strijd om de volkswil. In P. van Dam, B. Mellink, & J. Turpijn (Eds.), Onbehagen in de polder: Nederland in conflict sinds 1795 (pp. 185-206, 314-318). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2012). 'Wie varen wil, zij onvervaard, doch wake voor gevaar': het beleid van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Nederland' en de Rotterdamsche Lloyd tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914-1918). Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis, 9(4), 31-63. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2012). Overlegeconomie in oorlogstijd: de Nederlandsche Overzee Trustmaatschappij en de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Zutphen: Walburg Pers. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2012). Van internationaal distributiecentrum naar 'Top van de Randstad': de Zaanse economie, 1914-2010. In E. Beukers, & C. van Sijl (Eds.), Geschiedenis van de Zaanstreek. - 2 (pp. 605-634). Zwolle: WBooks [etc.]. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). Government by committee: Dutch economic neutrality and the First World War. In J. E. Kitchen, A. Miller, & L. Rowe (Eds.), Other combatants, other fronts: competing histories of the First World War (pp. 99-124). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). NOT neutrality: the Dutch government, the Netherlands Oversea Trust Company and the Entente blockade of Germany, 1914-1918. In J. den Hertog, & S. Kruizinga (Eds.), Caught in the middle: neutrals, neutrality, and the First World War (pp. 85-103). (Studies of the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation; No. 3). Amsterdam: Aksant. [details] 
  • den Hertog, J., & Kruizinga, S. (2011). Introduction. In J. den Hertog, & S. Kruizinga (Eds.), Caught in the middle: neutrals, neutrality, and the First World War (pp. 1-14). (Studies of the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation; No. 3). Amsterdam: Aksant. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). Onzijdig maar niet neutraal: Nederland, Groot-Brittannië en de Nederlandsche Overzee Trustmaatschappij in 1914. In H. van der Linden, & P. Pierik (Eds.), Het dramatische jaar 1914 en de uitbraak van de Grote Oorlog (pp. 277-302). Soesterberg: Aspekt. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S., Klinkert, W., & Moeyes, P. (2014). The Netherlands. In U. Daniel, P. Gatrell, O. Janz, H. Jones, J. Keene, A. Kramer, & B. Nasson (Eds.), 1914-1918 Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.10432  [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2013). Economische ‘achterheid’?: De Wageningse economie van 1815 tot 1945. In K. Gast, B. Kernkamp, & L. Klep (Eds.), Geschiedenis van Wageningen (pp. 178-199). Wageningen: Uitgeverij Blauwdruk. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2013). Grote gevaren en onverwachte mogelijkheden: de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij en de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914-1918). Tijdschrift voor Zeegeschiedenis, 32(1), 3-20. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2012). De hoofdrol voor een figurant: Nederland en de Eerste Wereldoorlog, 1914-1918. Ex Tempore, 31(2), 99-103. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2010). [Review of: C. Baxter, A. Stewart (2008) Diplomats at war: British and Commonwealth diplomacy in wartime]. First World War Studies, 1(1), 75-77. DOI: 10.1080/19475021003621200  [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. F. (2006). 'Onzijdig maar niet neutraal'. In H. Andriessen, M. Ros, & P. Pierik (Eds.), De groote oorlog. Kroniek 1914-1918 (pp. 97-121). Soesterberg: Aspekt. [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2016). Met de nudisten ten strijde: [Bespreking van: E. Kieft (2015) Oorlogsenthousiasme: Europa 1900-1918]. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 129(3), 482-484. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2016). [Bespreking van: E. Klinkers (2015) De troepenmacht in Suriname: de Nederlandse defensie in een veranderende koloniale wereld 1940-1975]. BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review, 131(4), [review 66]. DOI: 10.18352/bmgn-lchr.10279  [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2016). [Review of: M. Abbenhuis (2014) An age of neutrals: great power politics, 1815-1914]. BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review, 131(2), [review 27]. DOI: 10.18352/bmgn-lchr.10210  [details] 


  • Klinkert, W., Kruizinga, S., & Moeyes, P. (2014). Nederland neutraal. De Eerste Wereldoorlog 1914-1918. Amsterdam: Boom. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2014). [Review of: N.A. Lambert (2012) Planning Armageddon: British economic warfare and the First World War]. First World War Studies, 5(1), 144-146. DOI: 10.1080/19475020.2014.901830  [details] 


  • Kruizinga, S. (2013). [Bespreking van: T. de Graaf (2012) Voor handel en maatschappij: geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, 1824-1964]. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 126(4), 603-604. DOI: 10.5117/TVGESCH2013.4.B19  [details] 



  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). Globaal in de beste zin van het woord [Bespreking van: L. Sondhaus (2011) World War I: the global revolution]. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 124(4), 580-581. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). Het grijze gebied tussen burger en soldaat [Bespreking van: T.M. Proctor (2010) Civilians in a world at war, 1914-1918]. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis, 124(2), 287-288. [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). [Bespreking van: J. de Bruijn (2011) Wilhelmina formeert: de kabinetscrisis van 1907-1908]. Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 126(4), 142-143. DOI: URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1-108433  [details] 
  • Kruizinga, S. (2011). [Review of: B. Wubs (2008) International business and national war interests: Unilever between Reich and empire, 1939-45]. Enterprise and Society, 12(3), 712-714. DOI: 10.1093/es/khq098  [details] 


  • Kruizinga, Samuël (2018): Research Innovation and Sustainability Fund.
  • Kruizinga, Samuël (2017): Internationalisation Grant.
  • Brolsma, Marjet, Kruizinga, S.F. & Kuitenbrouwer, J.J.V. (2017): Cutting Edge Network Grant of the Faculty of Humanities UvA (with Samuël Kruizinga and Vincent Kuitenbrouwer).
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