For best experience please turn on javascript and use a modern browser!
You are using a browser that is no longer supported by Microsoft. Please upgrade your browser. The site may not present itself correctly if you continue browsing.

N.M.I.D. (Naomi) Appelman

Faculty of Law
Information Law

Visiting address
  • Nieuwe Achtergracht 166
Postal address
  • Postbus 15514
    1001 NA Amsterdam
Contact details
  • Profile

    Naomi is a PhD researcher at the Institute for Information Law (IViR) interested in the role of law in online exclusion, speech governance, and platform power.

    Her interdisciplinary research combines information law, specifically, online speech and platform regulation with (agonistic) political philosophy. More concretely, her research asks how European law should facilitate contestation of the content moderation systems governing online speech. The aim of facilitating this contestation is to minimise undue exclusion, often of already marginalised groups, from online spaces and democratise the power over how online speech is governed.

    Her PhD is part of the Digital Transformation of Decision-making project and the Digital Legal Studies sectorplan. She was a visiting researcher at the Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society.

    Connected to her PhD research she has co-authored several reports and papers on the topic of online speech regulation and automated decision-making. Finally, Naomi has previously done volunteer work at the Dutch digital rights NGO Bits of Freedom and is one of the founders of the Racism and Technology Center.

  • Publications


    • Appelman, N. M. I. D., Quintais, J. P., & Fahy, R. F. (2021). Using Terms and Conditions to apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation. In R. Heiko, S. Marlene, & T. Erik (Eds.), To Break Up or Regulate Big Tech? Avenues to Constrain Private Power in the DSA/DMA Package (pp. 29-36). Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition.
    • Appelman, N., Ó Fathaigh, R., & van Hoboken, J. (2021). Social Welfare, Risk Profiling and Fundamental Rights: The Case of SyRI in the Netherlands. Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law, 12(4), 257-271. [details]
    • Ó Fathaigh, R., Helberger, N., & Appelman, N. (2021). The perils of legally defining disinformation. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). [details]


    • Appelman, N. M. I. D. (Author), & Leerssen, P. J. (Author). (2022). Trusted Flaggers. Web publication or website, Yale ISP WIII.
    • Appelman, N., van Duin, J., Fahy, R., van Hoboken, J., Helberger, N., & Zarouali, B. (2022). Access to Digital Justice: In Search of an Effective Remedy for Removing Unlawful Online Content. In X. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas, & E. Themeli (Eds.), Frontiers in Civil Justice: Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation (pp. 217-236). Edward Elgar Publishing. [details]
    • Fahy, R. F. (Author), Appelman, N. M. I. D. (Author), & Helberger, N. (Author). (2022). The EU’s regulatory push against disinformation. Web publication or website, Verfassungsblog.
    • van Duin, J. M. L., Appelman, N. M. I. D., Zarouali, B., & van den Bosch, P. (2022). Rapport surveydata Schadelijk gedrag online in Nederland: Resultaten en nadere analyse van surveydata over de ervaringen van mensen in Nederland met schadelijk online gedrag en (juridische) stappen naar aanleiding daarvan.
    • van Hoboken, J. V. J. (Author), Buri, I. (Author), Quintais, J. P. (Author), Fahy, R. F. (Author), Appelman, N. M. I. D. (Author), & Straub, M. (Author). (2022). The DSA has been published – now the difficult bit begins. Web publication or website, Verfassungsblog.



    • Appelman, N. M. I. D., Toh, W. J., Fahy, R. F., & van Hoboken, J. V. J. (2020). Techno-optimism and solutionism as a crisis response. In L. Taylor, G. Sharma, A. Martin, & S. Jameson (Eds.), Data Justice and COVID-19: Global Perspectives (pp. 190-195). Meatspace Press.
    • Bodó, B., von Schwichow, H., & Appelman, N. (2020). Money Talks? Report on the one-day symposium on the impact of corporate funding on information law research. (Amsterdam Law School Legal Studies Research Papers; No. 2020-16), (Institute for Information Law Research Papers; No. 2020-02). Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Informatierecht. [details]
    • van Drunen, M. Z., Ausloos, J., Appelman, N. M. I. D., & Helberger, N. (2020). News Recommenders and Cooperative Explainability: Confronting the contextual complexity in AI explanations. (Vision Paper).
    • van Hoboken, J., Appelman, N., van Duin, A., Blom, T., Zarouali, B., Ó Fathaigh, R., Seel, M., Stringhi, E., & Helberger, N. (2020). WODC-onderzoek: Voorziening voor verzoeken tot snelle verwijdering van onrechtmatige online content: Eindrapportage. (WODC rapport; No. 3108). Instituut voor Informatierecht, Universiteit van Amsterdam. [details]



    • Appelman, N. M. I. D., & Fahy, R. F. (2020). Netherlands. In F. Chiusi, S. Fischer, & M. Spielkamp (Eds.), Automated Decision-Making Systems in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A European Perspective (pp. 25-26). AW AlgorithmWatch gGmbH.
    • Fahy, R. F., & Appelman, N. M. I. D. (2020). Netherlands. In F. Chiusi, S. Fischer, N. Kayser-Bril, & M. Spielkamp (Eds.), Automating Society Report 2020 (pp. 164-175). AW AlgorithmWatch gGmbH.


    Prize / grant

    • van Duin, A., Appelman, N. & Zarouali, B. (2021). Thematic Research Grant - Amsterdam Centre for European Studies.

    Media appearance

    Talk / presentation

    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (24-11-2022). Pushing back against Big Tech: The regulatory environment for challenging content enforcement decisions, Digital Legal Talks 2022, Utrecht.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (1-11-2022). Algorithmic Content Moderation Through an Agonistic Lens, Radical approaches to platform governance, Dublin.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (8-9-2022). Algorithmic content moderation through an agonistic lens: contesting online exclusion, The Manchester Centre for Political Theory Annual conference
      , Manchester.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (2-9-2022). Symposium Internetscriptieprijs, Internet scriptieprijs 2022, Amsterdam.
    • Toh, J. (speaker) & Appelman, N. (speaker) (14-7-2022). International dimensions of Law & Political Economy, Law and Society, Lisbon.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (31-5-2022). Inclusion and Exclusion in Social Media Governance, Leibniz Institute for Media Research | Hans-Bredow-Institut.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (13-4-2022). Tracing the contestability of content moderation: Where are the users?, Global Internet Governance Actors, Regulations, Transactions and Strategies, Nicosia.
    • Quintais, J. (speaker), Appelman, N. (speaker) & Ó Fathaigh, R. (speaker) (29-3-2022). Using Terms and Conditions to apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation: Is Article 12 DSA a Paper Tiger, TILT seminar.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (19-3-2022). Trusted Flaggers, Yale University.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (7-3-2022). Marginalised Voices Online, MozFest 2022.
    • Quintais, J. (speaker), Appelman, N. (speaker) & Ó Fathaigh, R. (speaker) (24-2-2022). Using Terms and Conditions to apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation: Is Article 12 DSA a Paper Tiger, IE Law School Private Law Series.
    • Quintais, J. (speaker), Appelman, N. (speaker) & Ó Fathaigh, R. (speaker) (8-12-2021). Using Terms and Conditions to apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation: Is Article 12 DSA a Paper Tiger?, Digital Legal Talks.
    • Quintais, J. (speaker), Appelman, N. (speaker) & Ó Fathaigh, R. (speaker) (15-11-2021). Using Terms and Conditions to apply Fundamental Rights to Content Moderation: Is Article 12 DSA a Paper Tiger?, PERCOLATING THE DSA PACKAGE – PERSPECTIVES FOR A DIGITAL DECADE.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (11-6-2021). Out of "site," out of mind? How platform regulation can better protect the human rights of non-users, RightsCon.
    • Ó Fathaigh, R. (speaker), Helberger, N. (speaker) & Appelman, N. (speaker) (27-5-2021). The Perils of Legally Defining Disinformation, 71st International Communication Association Conference.
    • Leerssen, P. (invited speaker), Appelman, N. (invited speaker) & Sax, M. (speaker) (17-12-2020). Platform Monopolies, Conglomerates and The Digital Markets Act,
      PEPTalk #1: Big Tech Platform Power Regulation
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) & van Duin, A. (speaker) (17-11-2020). Injured on the Internet: The Route to an Effective Remedy for Removing Unlawful Online Content, Frontiers in Civil Justice, Rotterdam.
    • Appelman, N. (speaker) (17-6-2020). The experience of people in the Netherlands with online content that causes personal harm and the route to an effective remedy, Workshop on Empirical Approaches to Platform Governance Research.
    • Appelman, N. (invited speaker) (26-2-2020). ADM and the SyRI judgment., Gemeente Amsterdam.


    • Quintais, J. (organiser), Appelman, N. (organiser), Ó Fathaigh, R. (organiser), Buri, I. (organiser) & van Hoboken, J. (organiser) (25-2-2022). “Exploring Article 12 of the Digital Services Act: Terms and Conditions and Fundamental Rights”      . Large online platforms provide an unprecedented means for exercising freedom of expression online and wield “enormous power” over public (…) (organising a conference, workshop, ...).


    This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications. Log in to Personal Page Publication Selection tool to manage the visibility of your publications on this list.
  • Ancillary activities
    • Stichting Racism and Technology Center
      Deel van het bestuur (onbezoldigd) van de stichting.