Raised in a village on the Veluwe, I nevertheless received my BA and MA degrees (Utrecht University, cum laude) in 2013 and 2018. I graduated on late imperial Russian peasant colonisation in the province of Ufa, which was located in the non-Russian borderlands of Bashkiria, in the southern Urals. My research lies at the intersection of (Russian) empire, colonialism and citizenship and it seeks to understand how attempts at modernization affected communities within a political system based on privileges and personal rule — and how communities themselves negotiated their position in a changing imperial constellation. Since I study Russian and Bashkir history partly through the lens of Soviet historians, I have also become interested in Marxist theories and their national iterations. I partially completed a BA in Russian studies at the University of Amsterdam in order to conduct archival research in Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia as a guest researcher at the Institute of History, Language and Literature of the Ufa branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.