For best experience please turn on javascript and use a modern browser!

dr. K. (Katrin) Schulz

Faculty of Humanities
Logic and Language
Photographer: onbekend

Visiting address
  • Oude Turfmarkt 143
  • Room number: 1.13
Postal address
  • Postbus 94201
    1090 GE Amsterdam
  • Profile

    I am assistant professor (UD 1) in logic at the department of philosophy, University of Amsterdam. My research is situated at the Institute of Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC). At the moment my research focusses mainly at the following topics:

    • the semantics of generic sentences and how their relation to biases and stereotypical thinking,
    • the interaction between conditional sentences and causality and possible consequences for cognition of causation and hypothetical thinking,
    • fake tense and aspect in X-marked conditionals.

    I'm co-chair of the Causal Inference Lab of the University of Amsterdam.

    From September 2013 until August 2016 I was programme director of the BA philosophy at the University of Amsterdam.

    Between 2010 and 2015 I worked on an NWO veni- project with the title `The semantic anatomy of conditional sentences'. This project aims to unravel the compositional structure of conditional sentences cross-linguistically.


    For slides of recent talks and recent manuscripts see research.


    Last updated:

  • Research

    Upcoming Talks

    • Talk at MCMP, Munich, January 2018.


    recent manuscripts

    For recent manuscripts see the links under PUBLICATIONS on this site.

    -- Older papers sorted by topic --

    Causality and counterfactual conditionals

    The main paper is the first one. It is published in a special issue of Synthese( The proofs of a couple of claims in this paper come in a separate document (the appendix). The second paper generalizes the theory and links it to work of Stenning &van Lambalgen on modeling non-monotonic reasoning with conditionals.

    Papers on tense and mood in conditional sentences

    The first paper is a close-to-publish (february 2012) version of my approach to Fake Tense, now spelled out in the framework for compositional semantics of Heim & Kratzer 1998 and Stechow 2009. The paper has been published in Natural Language Semantics in 2014. There have been some substantial changes with respect to the earlier version, though the basic idea remained the same.

    The second paper is a discussion of how convincing this approach is when applied to double past X-marked conditionals like "If you had been in Paris next week, we could have met." As I explain in this paper, I have my doubt that the approach generalizes and sketch an alternative.

    At the moment I am working on a new proposal that solves the issues I discussed in this paper and also reacts to the criticism and alternative proposed in Mackay (2016, 2018). This paper is down for revisions at the moment.

    The third paper is aimed at a philosophical audience and argues that philosophers should take linguistic research into account when working -- in a broad sense -- on natural language. The focus is here on conditional sentences. Among other I provide an account for the indicative/subjunctive distinction without reference to two different modes of inference. 

    The fourth paper is published in the proceedings of SALT 2008. It concerns the interpretation of tense in indicative conditionals. Goal of the paper is to explain why in indicative conditionals tenses can be interpreted as if anchored in the future instead in the utterance time.

    2. Fake Perfect in X-marked Conditionals

    Papers on the compositional semantics of conditionals

    There are two papers here. The first is a somewhat outdated critique on a particular interpretation of the restrictor approach to conditionals. The paper below distinguishes two versions of the restrictor approach: a weak version which is the one that has been introduced by Kratzer (Kratzer [1977, 1979, 1981]) and a strong version that is the way the restrictor approach is presently used in many approaches to conditionals. The second part of the paper contains some arguments against the strong version of the restrictor approach. Aim of the paper is to stimulate a more critical and reflecting application of the restrictor approach.

    The second paper makes a particular proposal for how to approach the semantics of conditionals compositionally. It is based on the idea that if-clauses should be analyzed as free relatives for possible worlds. The semantics is spelled out in plural compositional DRT, which is, as some would probably say, not for the fainthearted.  But  you get a lot back from the system, particularly an ontology that can meaningfully talk about pluralities of possible worlds. The approach embraces the weak interpretation of the restrictor approach.

    Papers on exhaustivity and conversational implicatures

    Papers on Free Choice

    The paper has been published in Synthese ( It is based on my Master's thesis. The thesis can be reached by the link below. The last paper is a short manuscript on "may".

    2. Master Thesis


    Here you can download my dissertation (just scroll to the bottom of the page), finished in May 2007 and defended on November 2nd 2007. 


  • Teaching

    Below you can find an overview of my current teaching activities. 

    Conditional Sentences and Causal Reasoning

    Course taught as part of the MCMP Summer School on Mathematical Philosophy for Female Students 2017 in Munich ( You can find below the slides and handouts in the order they were discussed in class.

    Causal Inference, 

    This is a master-level course I teach, mainly for students of the Masters of Logic programme offered by the ILLC. The main focus of the course is on dependency approaches to causality. Extra emphasis is put on the relation between causality and conditionals and causal reasoning. 


    Logische Analyse, bachelor philosophy (Dutch)

    This is a BA course that I enjoy teaching very much. It's a short 8 week course taught in the first semester of the academic year. One the one hand the course teaches philosophy students basic proof-writing skills up to proofs by induction. For this part I rely a lot on "How to prove it" by Velleman. On the other hand the course aims at training the students in analytical argumentation. This year I read with the students "Beyond the limits of thought" by Priest and a couple of papers related to this topic. 



    Onderwijsprijs / Teaching Award

    In 2011 the course Logische Analyse has won the teaching award of the faculty of humanities for the best BA course. For more information see the links below.

    Onderwijsprijs FGw


    Guest lecture "Logic, Language and Computation"

    In November 2016 I gave a guest lecture in the MoL course  "Logic, Language and Computation" with the title A Puzzle: Fake Tense. The slides can be found below.

  • Links

    Department of Philosophy, Universiteit van Amsterdam

    My teaching institute.

    Philosophy homepage

    Institute for Logic, Language and Compuation (ILLC)

    My research institute.

    ILLC homepage

  • Publications



    • Schulz, K. (2018). The similarity approach strikes back: Negation in counterfactuals. In U. Sauerland, & S. Solt (Eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 22 (pp. 343-360)
    • van Rooij, R. A. M., & Schulz, K. (2018). Generic Sentences: Representativeness or Causality? In Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 23
    • van Rooij, R. A. M., & Schulz, K. (2018). Indicative conditionals. In The Semantic Companion Wiley.


    • Schulz, K. (2017). Fake perfect in X-marked conditionals. Proceedings from Semantics and Linguistic Theory, 27, 547-570. [details]
    • van Rooij, R., & Schulz, K. (2017). Topic, focus, and exhaustive interpretation. In C. Lee, F. Kiefer, & M. Krifka (Eds.), Contrastiveness in Information Structure, Alternatives and Scalar Implicatures (pp. 63-82). (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory; Vol. 91). Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10106-4_4 [details]


    • van Rooij, R., & Schulz, K. (2016). Analysing communicative diversity via the Stag Hunt. In Diversity @ ECAI 2016: International Workshop on Diversity-Aware Artificial Intelligence : The Hague, Netherlands, 29th August 2016 : workshop proceedings (pp. 50-52). The Hague: ECAI. [details]


    • Schulz, K. (2014). Fake Tense in Conditional Sentences: A Modal Approach. Natural Language Semantics, 22(2), 117-144. DOI: 10.1007/s11050-013-9102-0 [details]
    • Schulz, K. (2014). Minimal models vs. logic programming: the case of counterfactual conditionals. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics, 24(1-2), 153-168. DOI: 10.1080/11663081.2014.911537 [details]
    • van Rooij, R., & Schulz, K. (2014). A question of priority. In E. McCready, K. Yabushita, & K. Yoshimoto (Eds.), Formal approaches to semantics and pragmatics: Japanese and beyond (pp. 273-293). (Studies in linguistics and philosophy; Vol. 95). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-8813-7_13 [details]


    • Schulz, K. (2011). "If you'd wiggled A, the B would've changed" Causality and counterfactual conditionals. Synthese, 179(2).


    • van Rooij, R., & Schulz, K. (2010). Non-monotonic reasoning in interpretation. In J. van Benthem, & A. ter Meulen (Eds.), Handbook of Logic and Language (Elsevier Insights). Amsterdam: Elsevier. [details]



    • van Rooij, R., & Schulz, K. (2007). Only: meaning and implicature. In M. Aloni, A. Butler, & P. Dekker (Eds.), Questions in dynamic semantics (pp. 193-224). (Current research in the semantics/pragmatics interface; No. 17). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • van Rooy, R. A. M., & Schulz, K. (2007). Only: Meaning and Implicatures. In M. Aloni, A. Butler, & P. Dekker (Eds.), Questions and Answers (pp. 193-224). Amsterdam: Elsevier.


    • Schulz, K., & van Rooij, R. A. M. (2006). Pragmatic Meaning and Non-monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation. Linguistics and Philosophy, 29, 205-250. DOI: 10.1007/s10988-005-3760-4



    • Aloni, M., Kimmelman, V., Roelofsen, F., Sassoon, G. W., Schulz, K., & Westera, M. (2012). Logic, language and meaning: 18th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 19-21 2011: revised selected papers. (Lecture notes in computer science; Vol. 7218), (FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information). Heidelberg: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31482-7 [details]


    • Aloni, M., Bastiaanse, H., de Jager, T., & Schulz, K. (2010). Preface. In M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager, & K. Schulz (Eds.), Logic, Language and Meaning: 17th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 16-18, 2009 : revised selected papers (pp. VI). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 6042), (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence), (FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information). Berlin: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-14287-1 [details]
    • Aloni, M., Bastiaanse, H., de Jager, T., & Schulz, K. (Eds.) (2010). Logic, language and meaning: 17th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, December 16-18, 2009 : revised selected papers. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 6042), (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence), (FoLLI Publications on Logic, Language and Information). Berlin: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-14287-1 [details]
    • Schulz, K. (2010). Troubles at the Semantics/Syntax Interface: Some thoughts about the modal approach to conditionals. In M. Prinzhorn, V. Schmitt, & S. Zobel (Eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 14 (pp. 388-404)


    • Schulz, K. (2007). Counterfactual conditionals and dynamic laws. In M. Aloni, & P. Dekker (Eds.), Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium (pp. 193-198). Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.
    • Schulz, K. (2007). English past and perfect as semantically ambiguous mood marker. In M. Aloni, & P. Dekker (Eds.), Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium (pp. 27-30). Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.


    • van Maanen, L., Schulz, K. & van Rooij, R. A. M. (2018). Unraveling the causal mind.
    • McHugh, D., Schulz, K. & Smets, S. J. L. (2018). NWO PhDs in the Humanities Grant (€226,000). Grant number PGW.18.028.



    • Schulz, K. (2007). Minimal models in semantics and pragmatics : free choice, exhaustivity, and conditionals Amsterdam: Institute for Logic, Language and Computation [details]
    This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications. Log in to Personal Page Publication Selection tool to manage the visibility of your publications on this list.
  • Ancillary activities
    • No ancillary activities