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Dr M. (Marijn) Sax

Faculty of Law
Information Law
Photographer: Vincent Boon

Visiting address
  • Nieuwe Achtergracht 166
Postal address
  • Postbus 15514
    1001 NA Amsterdam
Contact details
  • About me

    I am a postdoc at the Institute for Information Law where I am part of an interdisciplinary project that researches diversity in algorithmic news recommenders. I combine ethics and political philosophy to investigate 1) how, why, and what kinds of diversity matter in algorithmic news recommenders, and 2) to what extent nudging strategies are legitimate tools to promote news diversity.

    I completed my PhD (cum laude) at the Institute for Information Law and Department of Philosophy. My dissertation, Between Empowerment and Manipulation: The Ethics and Regulation of For-Profit Health Apps, combines ethical and legal approaches. Building on theories of autonomy, vulnerability, trust, and manipulation I try to show how ongoing commercial relations between health apps and their users come with a promise of user empowerment, but also with an almost inevitable risk of manipulation. I propose reinterpretations of key concepts in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive to help address the manipulative potential of for-profit health apps. I was a visiting PhD researcher at the Digital Life Initiative (Cornell Tech) from September until December 2018. To make this visit possible, I received grants from Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds, Studiefonds Ketel1, and the University of Amsterdam ('Lustrumbeurs').

    I have a background in Political Science (BSc.) and Philosophy (BA., MA., both cum laude).

     

  • Publications

    2021

    • Reuver, M., Mattis, N., Sax, M., Verberne, S., Tintarev, N., Helberger, N., Moeller, J., Vrijenhoek, S., Fokkens, A., & van Atteveldt, W. (2021). Are we human, or are we users? The role of natural language processing in human-centric news recommenders that nudge users to diverse content. In A. Field, S. Prabhumoye, M. Sap, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, & C. Brockett (Eds.), The 1st Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact: NLP4PosImpact 2021 : proceedings of the workshop : August 5, 2021, Bangkok, Thailand (online) (pp. 47-59). The Association for Computational Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.nlp4posimpact-1.6 [details]
    • Sax, M. (2021). Between Empowerment and Manipulation: The Ethics and Regulation of For-Profit Health Apps. (Information Law Series). Wolters Kluwer.
    • Sax, M. (2021). Optimization of what? For-profit health apps as manipulative digital environments. Ethics and Information Technology, 23(3), 345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-020-09576-6
    • Sax, M., & Ausloos, J. (2021). Getting under your skin(s): A legal-ethical exploration of Fortnite’s transformation into a content delivery platform and its manipulative potential. Interactive Entertainment Law Review , 4(1). https://doi.org/10.4337/ielr.2021.0001

    2018

    • Bol, N., Dienlin, T., Kruikemeier, S., Sax, M., Boerman, S. C., Strycharz, J., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. H. (2018). Understanding the effects of personalization as a privacy calculus: Analyzing self-disclosure across health, news, and commerce contexts. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23(6), 370-388. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcmc/zmy020 [details]
    • Sax, M., Helberger, N., & Bol, N. (2018). Health as a Means Towards Profitable Ends: mHealth Apps, User Autonomy, and Unfair Commercial Practices. Journal of Consumer Policy, 41(2), 103-134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10603-018-9374-3 [details]

    2016

    2021

    • Helberger, N., Lynskey, O., Micklitz, H-W., Rott, P., Sax, M., & Strycharz, J. (2021). EU Consumer Protection 2.0: Structural Asymmetries in Digital Consumer Markets, A joint report from research conducted under the EUCP2.0 project. BEUC (The European Consumer Organisation). https://www.beuc.eu/beuc-network/projects [details]
    • Sax, M. (2021). Voorbij privacy: manipulatie is het échte probleem in gezondheidsapps. Privacy & Informatie, 2021(3), 117-120. [118].
    • Toh, W. J., Helberger, N., Eskens, S. J., Strycharz, J., Bouchè, G., van Hoboken, J. V. J., van Mil, J., van Apeldoorn, J. T. S., Appelman, N. M. I. D., van Eechoud, M. M. M., Sax, M., de Vreese, C. H., & van Doorn, N. (2021). Conditions for technological solutions in a COVID-19 exit strategy, with particular focus on the legal and societal conditions. ZonMw. https://www.ivir.nl/publicaties/download/covid-report.pdf

    2018

    • Sax, M. (2018). Privacy from an Ethical Perspective. In B. van der Sloot, & A. de Groot (Eds.), The Handbook of Privacy Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (pp. 143-172). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789462988095 [details]

    2021

    • Sax, M. (2021). De ethiek en regulering van gezondheidsapps. Nederlands Juristenblad, 96(12), 902.

    2017

    • Sax, M. (2017). [Review of: V. Miller (2016) The crisis of presence in contemporary culture : ethics, privacy and disclosure in mediated social life]. European Data Protection Law Review, 3(2), 293-296. https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2017/2/27 [details]

    2018

    • Bol, N., Dienlin, T., Kruikemeier, S., Sax, M., Boerman, S. C., Strycharz, J., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. H. (2018). Understanding the effects of personalization as a privacy calculus: Analyzing self-disclosure across health, news, and commerce contexts. Paper presented at International Communication Association, Prague 2018, .
    • Bol, N., Dienlin, T., Kruikemeier, S., Sax, M., Boerman, S. C., Strycharz, J., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. H. (2018). Using privacy calculus theory to understand the effects of personalization: Analyzing self-disclosure across health, news, and commerce contexts. Abstract from Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap, Gent, Belgium.
    • Dienlin, T., Bol, N., Kruikemeier, S., Sax, M., Boerman, S. C., Strycharz, J., Helberger, N., & de Vreese, C. H. (2018). Understanding the effects of personalization as a privacy calculus: Analyzing self-disclosure across health, news, and commerce contexts. Abstract from 51st Conference of the German Society for Psychology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    2017

    • Sax, M., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J., Bol, N., & Helberger, N. (2017). Mobile health apps, privacy and autonomy: An empirical, legal, and ethical analysis. Abstract from TILTing Perspectives 2017, Tilburg, Netherlands.

    Award

    • Sax, M. (2018). University of Amsterdam Lustrumbeurs.
    • Sax, M. (2018). Studiefonds Ketel 1 Grant.
    • Sax, M. (2018). Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds Grant.

    Media appearance

    Talk / presentation

    • Sax, M. (speaker) (19-11-2021). It can’t all be bad, right? A multidisciplinary approach to persuading individuals into a healthy lifestyle, "The computer said it was OK!": human rights (and other) implications of persuasive design and manipulation via digital products, Amsterdam.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (2-11-2021). De weg vinden in zorg-op-afstand-tools, Zorg & ICT Beurs.
    • Ausloos, J. (speaker) & Sax, M. (speaker) (21-4-2021). IELR 4.1 pre-publication event: Lootboxes (21/04/21), Queen Mary, University of London.
    • Leerssen, P. (invited speaker), Appelman, N. (invited speaker) & Sax, M. (speaker) (17-12-2020). Platform Monopolies, Conglomerates and The Digital Markets Act,
      PEPTalk #1: Big Tech Platform Power Regulation
      .
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (5-10-2020). Felix College N°5: Hoe gezondheidsapps jouw gedrag manipuleren, Felix College N°5.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (4-2-2019). Self-Tracking Technologies: Manipulation, Privacy, and Autonomy, University of Kassel.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (19-9-2018). Targeting Your Health or Your Wallet? Health Apps and Manipulative Commercial Practices, New York University.
    • Sax, M. (speaker), Helberger, N. (speaker) & Bol, N. (speaker) (30-5-2018). Health as a Means Towards Profitable Ends: mHealth Apps, User Autonomy, and Unfair Commercial Practices, Privacy Law Scholars Conference, Washington DC.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (12-2-2018). Oops, Cupid, You Mismatched Again, European Data Protection Supervisor.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (25-1-2018). mHealth: Manipulation of Consumers?, Computers, Privacy & Data Protection, Brussels.
    • Sax, M. (speaker), Helberger, N. (speaker) & Bol, N. (speaker) (24-1-2018). Health as a Means Towards Profitable Ends? mHealth Apps and the Precarious Balance Between Commerce and User Autonomy, Computers, Privacy & Data Protection, Brussels.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (15-12-2017). Gezondheidsapps met bijwerkingen?, Spui 25.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (11-10-2017). Discussion with Helen Nissenbaum: How should we think about obfuscation?, UvA/Spui 25.
    • Sax, M. (speaker) (18-4-2017). Gezondheidsapps en decisionele privacy.

    2021

    • Sax, M. (2021). Between empowerment and manipulation: The ethics and regulation of for-profit health apps. [details]
    This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications. Log in to Personal Page Publication Selection tool to manage the visibility of your publications on this list.
  • Ancillary activities
    • No ancillary activities