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Dr. E. (Esmée) Verwijk

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
Programme group Brain and Cognition
Photographer: S.A. Gons

Visiting address
  • Nieuwe Achtergracht 129
Postal address
Contact details
  • Personal data & profile

    My research focuses on behavioural and cognitive changes induced by invasive brain stimulation treatment methods such as Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).  

    Since 2004 I have extensively studied and worked with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) . My  PhD project focused on cognitive changes after ECT.  I collaborate in the Dutch/Flemish ResPECT consortium (RESearch in Psychiatry and ECT) and on different research projects: ECT related anxiety, cognitive rehabilitation after ECT, ECT as an intervention for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, ECT as an intervention for Clozapine resistant schizophrenia and on transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation as a follow up treatment for ECT resistant patients or patients who benefit from ECT but have major cognitive side effects. 

    Since 2017, I expanded my research focus to brain stimulation methods of DBS and ECT. Both brain stimulation treatment methods are highly effective interventions for severe brain disorders like Parkinson disease and melancholic depression. Little is known however about the fundamental underlying mechanisms of the symptomatic, behavioral and cognitive changes induced by these interventions. Even less is known about the predictive factors involved in the strong individual differences in these changes. Integrated fundamental and clinical research into the predictive determinants and underlying mechanisms is key to the development of a more effective and personalized application of these interventions. My intention and drive is to get more answers about the working mechanisms and predictors of cognitive changes related to DBS and ECT: who is vulnerable? How can we prevent? 

    Position

    Assistant professor

    Expertise / research areas

    • Clinical neuropsychology
    • Neurological and psychiatric disorders  
    • Invasive brain stimulation treatments 
    • Chronotherapy 

    Area of expertise

    Psychology

  • Research
    Expertise / research area:
    • Clinical neuropsychology
    • Neurological and psychiatric disorders  
    • Invasive brain stimulation treatments 
    • Chronotherapy

     

  • Education & PhD-supervision
    Courses / Modules
    • Introduction and diagnostics
    • Interventions and psychopathology
    • Neuropsychological rehabilitation
    • ECT related anxiety
    • Prediction of cognitive deficits in ECT

     

  • Publications

    2024

    • Loef, D., van Eijndhoven, P., van den Munckhof, E., Hoogendoorn, A., Manten, R., Spaans, H-P., Tendolkar, I., Rutten, B., Nuninga, J., Somers, M., van Dellen, E., van Exel, E., Schouws, S., Dols, A., & Verwijk, E. (2024). Pre-treatment predictors of cognitive side-effects after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy in patients with depression: A multicenter study. Journal of Affective Disorders. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2024.01.049
    • NeNeSCo study group (2024). A biopsychosocial approach to persistent post-COVID-19 fatigue and cognitive complaints: results of the prospective multicenter NeNeSCo study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2023.12.014

    2023

    • Hebbrecht, K., Dejaeger, M., Giltay, E. J., Birkenhäger, T., Sabbe, B., Verwijk, E., Obbels, J., Schrijvers, D., & Van Diermen, L. (2023). Corrigendum to "Cognitive trajectories during and after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with MDE: Taking different perspectives" [J. Psychiatr. Res. 152 (2022) 132-140]. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 158, 41. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.12.001
    • Holewijn, R. A., Zoon, T. J. C., Verbaan, D., Bergfeld, I. O., Verwijk, E., Geurtsen, G. J., van Rooijen, G., van den Munckhof, P., Bot, M., Denys, D. A. J. P., De Bie, R. M. A., & Schuurman, P. R. (2023). Cognitive and psychiatric outcomes in the GALAXY trial: effect of anaesthesia in deep brain stimulation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2023-331791
    • Klinkhammer, S., NeNeSCo study group, Horn, J., Duits, A. A., Visser-Meily, J. M. A., Verwijk, E., Slooter, A. J. C., Postma, A. A., & van Heugten, C. M. (2023). Neurological and (neuro)psychological sequelae in intensive care and general ward COVID-19 survivors. European Journal of Neurology, 30(7), 1880-1890. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.15812
    • Sisodia, V., Swinnen, B. E. K. S., Dijk, J. M., Verwijk, E., van Rooijen, G., Lemstra, A. W., Schuurman, P. R., & de Bie, R. M. A. (2023). Protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating Deep Brain Stimulation for MOtor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease DEmentia (DBS-MODE). BMC Neurology, 23, Article 160. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-023-03142-5 [details]

    2022

    • Hebbrecht, K., Dejaeger, M., Giltay, E. J., Birkenhäger, T., Sabbe, B., Verwijk, E., Obbels, J., Schrijvers, D., & Van Diermen, L. (2022). Cognitive trajectories during and after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with MDE: Taking different perspectives. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 156, 132-140. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.09.028 [details]
    • Lambrichts, S., Vansteelandt, K., Hebbrecht, K., Wagenmakers, M. J., Oudega, M. L., Obbels, J., van Exel, E., Dols, A., Bouckaert, F., Schrijvers, D., Verwijk, E., & Sienaert, P. (2022). Which residual symptoms predict relapse after successful electroconvulsive therapy for late-life depression? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 154, 111-116. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.07.056 [details]
    • Lambrichts, S., Wagenmakers, M. J., Vansteelandt, K., Obbels, J., Schouws, S. N. T. M., Verwijk, E., van Exel, E., Bouckaert, F., Vandenbulcke, M., Schrijvers, D., Veltman, D. J., Beekman, A. T. F., Oudega, M. L., Sienaert, P., & Dols, A. (2022). Long-term Outcome Following Electroconvulsive Therapy for Late- Life Depression: Five-Year Follow- up Data From the MODECT Study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30(12), 1283-1294. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2022.05.010 [details]
    • Luykx, J. J., Loef, D., Lin, B., van Diermen, L., Nuninga, J. O., van Exel, E., Oudega, M. L., Rhebergen, D., Schouws, S. N. T. M., van Eijndhoven, P., Verwijk, E., Schrijvers, D., Birkenhager, T. K., Ryan, K. M., Arts, B., van Bronswijk, S. C., Kenis, G., Schurgers, G., Baune, B. T., ... Rutten, B. P. F. (2022). Interrogating Associations Between Polygenic Liabilities and Electroconvulsive Therapy Effectiveness. Biological Psychiatry, 91(6), 531-539. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.10.013 [details]
    • Obbels, J., Gijsbregts, E., Verwijk, E., Verspecht, S., Lambrichts, S., Vansteelandt, K., & Sienaert, P. (2022). ECT-related anxiety during maintenance ECT: A prospective study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 146(6), 604-612. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13496 [details]
    • Verdijk, J. P. A. J., Pottkämper, J. C. M., Verwijk, E., van Wingen, G. A., van Putten, M. J. A. M., Hofmeijer, J., & van Waarde, J. A. (2022). Study of effect of nimodipine and acetaminophen on postictal symptoms in depressed patients after electroconvulsive therapy (SYNAPSE). Trials, 23, Article 324. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06206-y [details]
    • Verdijk, J. P. A. J., van Kessel, M. A., Oud, M., Kellner, C. H., Hofmeijer, J., Verwijk, E., & van Waarde, J. A. (2022). Pharmacological interventions to diminish cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 145(4), 343-356. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13397 [details]

    2021

    • Klinkhammer, S., Horn, J., Visser-Meily, J. M. A., Verwijk, E., Duits, A., Slooter, A. J. C., van Heugten, C. M., & NeNeSCo study group (2021). Dutch multicentre, prospective follow-up, cohort study comparing the neurological and neuropsychological sequelae of hospitalised non-ICU- and ICU-treated COVID-19 survivors: a study protocol. BMJ Open, 11(10), Article e054901. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054901 [details]
    • Obbels, J., Vansteelandt, K., Bouckaert, F., Dols, A., Stek, M., Verwijk, E., & Sienaert, P. (2021). Neurocognitive functioning after electroconvulsive therapy in late-life depression: a four-year prospective study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 143(2), 141-150. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13252 [details]

    2020

    • Hebbrecht, K., Giltay, E. J., Birkenhäger, T. K., Sabbe, B., Verwijk, E., Obbels, J., Roelant, E., Schrijvers, D., & Van Diermen, L. (2020). Cognitive change after electroconvulsive therapy in mood disorders measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 142(5), 413-422. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13231 [details]
    • Meesters, Y., Starreveld, D., Verwijk, E., Spaans, H-P., & Gordijn, M. C. M. (2020). Chronotherapy Network Netherlands (CNN). Journal of biological rhythms, 35(3), 317-319. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730419896503 [details]
    • Obbels, J., Vanbrabant, K., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., Vansteelandt, K., & Sienaert, P. (2020). Monitoring Electroconvulsive Therapy-Related Anxiety: The ECT-Related Anxiety Questionnaire. The Journal of ECT, 36(3), 180-186. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000661 [details]
    • Obbels, J., Vansteelandt, K., Verwijk, E., Lambrichts, S., Bouckaert, F., & Sienaert, P. (2020). Understanding electroconvulsive therapy‐related anxiety: a prospective study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 142(2), 132-140. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13198 [details]
    • Wagenmakers, M. J., Oudega, M. L., Vansteelandt, K., Spaans, H-P., Verwijk, E., Obbels, J., Rhebergen, D., van Exel, E., Bouckaert, F., Stek, M. L., Sienaert, P., & Dols, A. (2020). Psychotic late-life depression less likely to relapse after electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 984-990. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.039 [details]
    • van Dijk, D. M., van Rhenen, W., Murre, J. M. J., & Verwijk, E. (2020). Cognitive functioning, sleep quality, and work performance in non-clinical burnout: The role of working memory. PLoS ONE, 15(4), Article e0231906. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231906 [details]
    • van Duist, M., Spaans, H. P., Verwijk, E., & Kok, R. M. (2020). ECT non­remitters: prognosis and treatment after 12 unilateral electroconvulsive therapy sessions for major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 272, 501-507. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.134 [details]
    • van Kessel, M. A., van der Vlugt, J. J. B., Spaans, H. P., Murre, J. M. J., & Verwijk, E. (2020). Psychotic depressive subtype and white mater hyperintensities do not predict cognitive side effects in ECT: A systematic review of pretreatment predictors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 272, 340-347. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.181 [details]

    2019

    • Obbels, J., Vansteelandt, K., Verwijk, E., Dols, A., Bouckaert, F., Oudega, M. L., Vandenbulcke, M., Stek, M., & Sienaert, P. (2019). MMSE Changes During and After ECT in Late-Life Depression: A Prospective Study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(9), 934-944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2019.04.006 [details]

    2018

    • Obbels, J., Verwijk, E., Vansteelandt, K., Dols, A., Bouckaert, F., Schouws, S., Vandenbulcke, M., Emsell, L., Stek, M., & Sienaert, P. (2018). Long-term neurocognitive functioning after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with late-life depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 138(3), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12942 [details]
    • Spaans, H-P., Kok, R. M., Bouckaert, F., Van Den Berg, J. F., Tunney, O. C., Sienaert, P., Verwijk, E., Kho, K. H., & Stek, M. L. (2018). Vascular risk factors in older patients with depression: outcome of electroconvulsive therapy versus medication. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(2), 371-378. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4754 [details]
    • van den Berg, J. F., Kruithof, H. C., Kok, R. M., Verwijk, E., & Spaans, H-P. (2018). Electroconvulsive Therapy for Agitation and Aggression in Dementia: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(4), 419-434. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2017.09.023 [details]

    2017

    • Obbels, J., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., & Sienaert, P. (2017). ECT-Related Anxiety: A Systematic Review. The Journal of ECT, 33(4), 229-236. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000383 [details]
    • Vijverberg, E. G. B., Schouws, S., Meesters, P. D., Verwijk, E., Comijs, H., Koene, T., Schreuder, C., Beekman, A., Scheltens, P., Stek, M., Pijnenburg, Y., & Dols, A. (2017). Cognitive Deficits in Patients With Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: A Comparative Study Between Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Primary Psychiatric Disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78(8), e940-e946. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16m11019 [details]

    2016

    • Obbels, J., Vanbrabant, K., Bouckaert, F., Verwijk, E., & Sienaert, P. (2016). The clinical practice of assessing cognitive function in adults receiving electroconvulsive therapy whom are we missing? The Journal of ECT, 32(2), 99-103. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000279
    • Spaans, H. P., Verwijk, E., Stek, M. L., Kho, K. H., Bouckaert, F., Kok, R. M., & Sienaert, P. (2016). Early complete remitters after electroconvulsive therapy profile and prognosis. The Journal of ECT, 32(2), 82-87. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000298

    2015

    • Spaans, H. P., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., Van Den Berg, J. F., Verwijk, E., Kho, K. H., Stek, M. L., & Kok, R. M. (2015). Speed of remission in elderly patients with depression: Electroconvulsive therapy V. medication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(1), 67-71. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.148213
    • Verwijk, E., Spaans, H. P., Comijs, H. C., Kho, K. H., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., Obbels, J., Scherder, E. J. A., Stek, M. L., & Kok, R. M. (2015). Relapse and long-term cognitive performance after brief pulse or ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy: A multicenter naturalistic follow up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 184, 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.022

    2014

    • Verwijk, E., Comijs, H. C., Kok, R. M., Spaans, H. P., Tielkes, C. E. M., Scherder, E. J. A., & Stek, M. L. (2014). Short- and long-term neurocognitive functioning after electroconvulsive therapy in depressed elderly: A prospective naturalistic study. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(2), 315-324. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610213001932

    2013

    • Spaans, H. P., Kho, K. H., Verwijk, E., Kok, R. M., & Stek, M. L. (2013). Efficacy of ultrabrief pulse electroconvulsive therapy for depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 720-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.072
    • Spaans, H. P., Verwijk, E., Comijs, H. C., Kok, R. M., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., Fannes, K., Vandepoel, K., Scherder, E. J. A., Stek, M. L., & Kho, K. H. (2013). Efficacy and cognitive side effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74(11). https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08538

    2012

    • Verwijk, E., Comijs, H. C., Kok, R. M., Spaans, H. P., Stek, M. L., & Scherder, E. J. A. (2012). Neurocognitive effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: A review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140(3), 233-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.024

    2008

    • Tielkes, C. E. M., Comijs, H. C., Verwijk, E., & Stek, M. L. (2008). The effects of ECT on cognitive functioning in the elderly: A review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(8), 789-795. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1989

    2021

    2019

    • Obbels, J., Vanbrabant, K., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., & Sienaert, P. (2019). Monitoring ECT-related anxiety: the ECT-related Anxiety questionnaire (ERAQ). Brain Stimulation, 12(2), 424. Article 239. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.12.376 [details]
    • Obbels, J., Vansteelandt, K., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., & Sienaert, P. (2019). MMSE during ECT in late-life depression: useful or useless? Brain Stimulation, 12(2), 424-425. Article 240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.12.377 [details]
    • Sienaert, P., & Verwijk, E. (2019). Metingen voor, tijdens en na ECT. In B. Verwey, & J. van Waarde (Eds.), Leerboek Elektroconvulsietherapie (pp. 121-132). Boom. [details]
    • Spaans, H-P., & Verwijk, E. (2019). Bijwerkingen. In B. Verwey, & J. van Waarde (Eds.), Leerboek Elektroconvulsietherapie (pp. 51-64). Boom. [details]
    • Verwijk, E., van Kessel, M., Obbels, J., & Kroes, M. (2019). Neurobiologie en neuropsychologie van cognitieve effecten. In B. Verwey, & J. van Waarde (Eds.), Leerboek Elektroconvulsietherapie (pp. 247-274). Boom. [details]

    2018

    • Obbels, J., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., & Sienaert, P. (2018). Electroconvulsive Therapy-Related Anxiety: Treat or Threat? The Journal of ECT, 34(2), 132-133. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000504 [details]
    • van Kessel, M. A., van der Vlugt, J. J. B., & Verwijk, E. (2018). Predictors of cognitive deficits in depressed patients treated with Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT), a systematic review. Journal of ECT, 34(3), 204.

    2017

    • Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., Verwijk, E., & Spaans, H. (2017). Relapse after successful ECT: does the ResPECT experience fit the literature? European Neuropsychopharmacology, 27, S542-S542.
    • Verwijk, E., Spaans, H., Kho, K., Kok, R., Sienaert, P., Boeckaert, F., & Stek, M. (2017). Cognitive performance as a predictor for ECT outcome and relapse. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 27, S542-S542.

    2016

    • Burgers, M., Verwijk, E., Spaans, H. P., Stek, M., Bouckaert, F., Obbels, J., ... van Exel, E. (2016). Autobiographical Memory Loss after ECT; Remission is Better than Non-remission. Journal of ECT, 32(3), 213-213.
    • Meesters, Y., Gordijn, M., Spaans, H-P., & Verwijk, E. (2016). Chronotherapeutische interventies. Psyfar, 11(4), 18-25. https://www.psyfar.nl/tijdschrift/editie/artikel/t/chronotherapeutische-interventies
    • Verwijk, E., Gordijn, M., Meesters, Y., Riemersma, R., & Spaans, H-P. (2016). Chronotherapy in the Netherlands. Neuropsychobiology, 74(4), 254-254.

    2015

    • Sienaert, P., Verwijk, E., Bouckaert, F., Comijs, H., Stek, M., Kok, R., & Spaans, H. (2015). Efficacy and cognitive side effects of ultrabrief pulse electroconvulsive therapy. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(Supplement 2), S116-S117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(15)30034-1
    • Spaans, H. P., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., van den Berg, J. F., Verwijk, E., Kho, K. H., Stek, M. L., & Kok, R. M. (2015). Authors' reply. British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(2), 167-168. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.206.2.167a

    2014

    • Spaans, H. P., Verwijk, E., Sienaert, P., Stek, M. L., Bouckaert, F., Comijs, H. C., Kok, R. M., Scherder, E. J. A., & Kho, K. H. (2014). Brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for major depression: Efficacy, effectiveness, and cognitive effects: Dr Spaans and colleagues reply. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(7), 777-778. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14lr08997a

    2011

    • Spaans, H-P., & Verwijk, E. (2011). Case report of an elderly outpatient treated with Wake Light Therapy. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, S19.
    • Spaans, H-P., Verwijk, E., Kok, R., Khol, K., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., ... Stek, M. (2011). Optimise ECT techniques: The effects of pulse width manipulation on the efficacy of ECT treatment in geriatric depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, S16-S17.

    2006

    • Spaans, HP., Kho, KH., & Verwijk, E. (2006). Optimise ECT techniques: The effects of pulse width manipulation on the efficacy and amnesic side-effects of ECT treatment in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91(Supplement), S85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.026

    2020

    2019

    2018

    2017

    2014

    2002

    • Verwijk, E., & Eilander, H. (2002). De psychologische behandeling van kinderen met niet-aangeboren hersenletsel. In A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, P. F. M. Kop, & P. H. G. M. Soons (Eds.), Psychologie in de gezondheidszorg (pp. 341-354). Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.

    Media appearance

    • Verwijk, E. (25-09-2019). Psycho-show. Item over Electroconvulsietherapie [Television]. Psycho-show: Electroconvulsietherapie.
    • Verwijk, E. (12-03-2019). Elk uur slaat er wel een klok [Print] Algemeen dagblad. Elk uur slaat er wel een klok.
    • Verwijk, E. (11-03-2019). Adieu zomeruur! Waarom de uurverandering ons zo erg ontregelt [Print] Tijdschrift 'Goed Gevoel'. Adieu zomeruur! Waarom de uurverandering ons zo erg ontregelt.
    This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications. Log in to Personal Page Publication Selection tool to manage the visibility of your publications on this list.
  • Ancillary activities
    • No ancillary activities