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NL

dr. K. (Kristina) Irion

Faculty of Law
Information Law

Visiting address
  • Nieuwe Achtergracht 166
  • Room number: 2.35
Postal address
  • Postbus 15514
    1001 NA Amsterdam
Contact details
  • Profile

    Kristina Irion is Senior Researcher at the Institute for Information Law (IViR) at the University of Amsterdam and Postdoctoral Researcher to the project Personalised Communication. She is the faculty organiser of the Annual IViR Summer Course on Privacy Law and Policy and teaches in the Research Master's in Information Law. She is Associate Professor (on research leave) at the School of Public Policy at Central European University in Budapest (Hungary).

    Kristina obtained her Dr. iuris degree from Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany), and holds a Masters degree in Information Technology and Telecommunications Law from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (UK). She was a part time Legal Officer at the Data Protection Authority in Berlin and worked as Senior Regulatory Counsel for a German mobile network operator. Kristina also gained working experience as a trainee at the European Commission in Brussels and she was a visiting fellow at the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) in Washington.

    Her research covers EU law, regulation and public policy in the fields of electronic communications, online media, content and services as well as privacy and data protection. As a Marie Curie Fellow she accomplished her individual research project on Governing Digital Information which explores how cloud computing transforms the (legal) relationship between individuals and their personal records. She lead-authored a recent study which identifies possible tensions between EU data protection law and free trade agreements. She is intrigued by the combined effects of individuals' online activities and commercial surveillance on society and global information governance.

    Kristina was key personnel of four collaborative European research projects on privacy, independent media supervisory authorities, and building functioning media institutions. She provided expertise to the European Commission and the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the OECD and ENISA as well as collaborating with the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS). As a member of the Scientific Committee, she contributes to the organisation of the annual Computer Privacy and Data Protection (CPDP) Conference. She is a member of the international advisory board of the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC).

  • Research projects
    Research grants
    2014 – 2015 Marie Curie fellow to the project GODINO – Governing Digital Information, Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union (Grant Agreement Number 327916), in cooperation with the Institute for Information Law (IViR) at the University of Amsterdam
    2012 – 2013 Scientific advisor to the research project “Development of functional media institutions in Western Balkans - a comparative study”, Regional Research Promotion Programme (RRPP) Western Balkans grant 2012
    2010 – 2011 Research director of the European Privacy and Human Rights (EPHR) project, European Commission, Specific Programme Fundamental Rights and Citizenship
    2009 – 2010 Coordinator of the Broadening The Range Of Awareness in Data Protection (BROAD) project, European Commission, Specific Programme Fundamental Rights and Citizenship
    2000 – 2003 Doctoral research fellowship, Hans Böckler Foundation, Düsseldorf (Germany)

     

    Commissioned research
    9/2015-2/2016 Advisory board member to the impact assessment of new legislative proposal of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (SMART 2015/0048) commissioned by European Commission (DG CONNECT) and executed by Visionary Analytics, Vilnius (LT)
    8/2015 Study team leader, Comparative study of best European practices of online content regulation.Study commissioned by the Council of Europe, Strasburg (FR)
    10/2014 Study team leader, The Independence and Functioning of the Audiovisual Media Authority in Albania, Study commissioned by the Council of Europe, Strasburg (FR)
    10/2012-2013 Rapporteur of the Task Force on Online Data Processing in the context of the reform of the EU data protection directive, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels (BE)
    9/2010-6/2011 Expert to the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) in a joint privacy & trust scenario assessment on Emerging social networking applications and technologies, Heraklion (GR)
    2010 –3/2011 Key public policy expert in the study Indicators for independence and efficient functioning of audiovisual media services regulatory bodies for the purpose of enforcing the rules in the AVMS Directive (INDIREG), commissioned by European Commission, Consortium Hans Bredow Institute (Hamburg), University of Leuven, CEU (Budapest), Cullen Int. (Namur) and Perspective Associates (London).
    2010 – 3/2011 Consultant of the OECD Working Party on Information Security and Privacy (WPISP) for drafting the background report on Protecting Children Online: Risks Faced By Children Online and Policies to Protect Them and developing Policy Principles, OECD, Paris (FR)

     

  • Conferences and invited talks

    Keynotes

    “Your digital home is no longer your castle: How cloud computing transforms the (legal) relationship between individuals and their digital assets”, IT Law Conference, Irish Centre for European Law (ICEL), 26 June 2015, Trinity College Dublin (IR)

    ”EU Data Protection and Consumer Cloud Computing”, keynote delivered at the Privacy & Innovation International Conference, University of Hong Kong, 8 June 2015, Hong Kong (HK)

    “The Independence of NRAs: Tool and Practices to Strengthen Independence”, invited keynote speaker, 40th EPRA meeting, 9-11 October 2014, Tbilisi (GE)

    “Indicators for formal and actual independence of regulatory bodies in the media sector”, presentation at the Council of Europe Regional Conference Indicators for Independence of Media Regulatory Bodies,  6 – 7 March 2014, Tirana (AL)

    Panelist of the main session on "Emerging Issues: Cloud Computing", Internet Governance Forum, 17 September 2010, Vilnius (LT)

    Panel organiser

    ‘Surveillance Capitalism: A New Societal Condition Rising’, Computer Privacy and Data Protection (CPDP) International Conference, 27-29 January 2016, Brussels (BE)

    'End-users at the mercy of the cloud and the future role of public policy’, Amsterdam Privacy Conference 2015, 23-26 October 2015, Amsterdam (NL)

     ‘Privacy by analogy: Lessons from copyright law, environmental law, consumer protection law and financial regulations’, 8th International Conference Computer Privacy & Data Protection (CPDP), 21-23 January 2015, Brussels (BE)

    Panel ‘The myth of users’ empowerment and how future law and policy can be better informed’, European Communication Conference 2014, 12-15 November 2014, Lisbon (PT)

     ‘Internet Intermediaries and Data Protections’, Public Voice Conference ‘Our Data, Our Lives’, 23 September 2013, Warsaw (PL)

    Panel ‘Independent regulatory agencies in the media sector: Media governance, delegation, accountability and assessment of independence’, 4th European Communication Conference, 24-27 October 2012, Istanbul (TR)

    Workshop ‘Online free expression and protecting privacy’, 22/09/2010, conference ‘Internet at Liberty 2010. the promise and peril of online free expression’, 20-22/09/2010, CEU and Google, Budapest (HU)

    Paper presentations

    “Your digital home is no longer your castle: How cloud computing transforms the (legal) relationship between individuals and their digital assets”, 5th European Communication Conference (ECC), 12-15 November 2014, Lisbon (PT)

    “Accountability unchained: Bulk Data Retention, Preemptive Surveillance, and Transatlantic Data Protection”, 5th ECPR Regulatory Governance Conference 2014, 25 to 27 of June 2014, Barcelona (ES)

    “Personal Data Protection in Consumer Online Transactions: How behavioral economics can inform EU data protection policy and law”, Society of Legal Scholars (SLS) Annual Conference 2013, SLS Cyberlaw Section, 3-6 September 2013, Edinburgh, Scotland (UK)

    “Online Personal Data Processing and the EU Data Protection Reform”, launch event at the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, 8 April 2013

    “Measuring Independence: Approaches, Limitations and a New Ranking Tool”, presentation at 4th European Communication Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, 24-27 October 2012

     “The Hollowing-out of Communications Secrecy”, Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) WG4 Workshop, 1-3 October 2012, Budapest (HU)

    (with Cavaliere, Paolo), “Communication across Social Networks: The Benefits and Limits of an Interconnection Policy 2.0”, 23rd European Regional Conference of the ITS “Technology Drivers and Social Change”, 1 - 4 July 2012, Vienna (AT)

    “Not the Sum of its Pieces: The Protection of Children Online as a Multi-Dimensional Governance Challenge”, European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) 4th Standing Group on Regulation & Governance Biennial Conference , University of Exeter, 27-29 June 2012, Exeter (UK)

    “The Governance of Cybersecurity”, 27th EuroCPR conference 2012, 25-27 March 2012, Ghent (BE)

    "EU policy and regulation of technical platform services to digital television",  Post and Electronic Communications Agency of the Republic of Slovenia APEK., 24 October 2011, Ljubljana (SL)

    "Independent Data Protection Authorities: Theory and practice of institutional independence and the judgment of the Court of Justice against Germany". Conference organized by the Hungarian Parliamentarian Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information, 28 September 2011, Budapest (HU)

    “Government Cloud Computing and the Policies of Data Sovereignty”, 22nd European Regional ITS Conference, 18-21 September 2011, Budapest (HU)

    "Indicators for independence and efficient functioning of audiovisual media services regulatory bodies for the purpose of enforcing the rules in the AVMS Directive (INDIREG study)", public workshop, 31 January 2011, Brussels (BE)

    Presentation on "The Protection of Children Online: Report" to the 29th meeting of the OECD Working Party on Information Security and Privacy (WPISP), 3 December 2010, Paris (FR)

    "International communications surveillance: Feasibility and policy", poster presentation at the ECREA 2010 conference, 14 October 2010, Hamburg (DE)

  • Languages

    German (native); English (proficient), French (advanced), Dutch (intermediate)

  • Publications

    2018

    • Granger, M-P., & Irion, K. (2018). The right to protection of personal data: The new posterchild of European Union citizenship? In S. de Vries, H. de Waele, & M-P. Granger (Eds.), Civil Rights and EU Citizenship: Challenges at the Crossroads of the European, National and Private Spheres (pp. 279–302). (Interdisciplinary Perspectives on EU Citizenship). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788113441.00019 [details]
    • Irion, K., & Jusić, T. (2018). Conclusions: A Cross-National Comparison of International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans. In K. Irion, & T. Jusić (Eds.), Media Constrained by Context: International Assistance and the Transition to Democratic Media in the Western Balkans (pp. 273-298). Budapest: Central European University Press. [details]
    • Irion, K., & Jusić, T. (Eds.) (2018). Media Constrained by Context: International Assistance and the Transition to Democratic Media in the Western Balkans. Budapest: Central European University Press. [details]
    • Oostveen, M., & Irion, K. (2018). The Golden Age of Personal Data: How to Regulate an Enabling Fundamental Right? In M. Bakhoum, B. Conde Gallego, M-O. Mackenrodt, & G. Surblytė-Namavičienė (Eds.), Personal Data in Competition, Consumer Protection and Intellectual Property Law: Towards a Holistic Approach? (pp. 7-26). (MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law; Vol. 28). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-57646-5_2 [details]
    • Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J., Möller, J., Kruikemeier, S., Ó Fathaigh, R., Irion, K., Dobber, T., ... de Vreese, C. (2018). Online Political Microtargeting: Promises and Threats for Democracy. Utrecht Law Review, 14(1), 82-96. https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.420 [details]

    2017

    • Bodó, B., Helberger, N., Irion, K., Zuiderveen Borgesius, F., Moller, J., van de Velde, B., ... de Vreese, C. (2017). Tackling the Algorithmic Control Crisis – the Technical, Legal, and Ethical Challenges of Research into Algorithmic Agents. Yale Journal of Law and Technology, 19, 133-180. [details]
    • Irion, K., & Helberger, N. (2017). Smart TV and the online media sector: User privacy in view of changing market realities. Telecommunications Policy, 41(3), 170-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2016.12.013 [details]

    2016

    2015

    • Irion, K. (2015). Your digital home is no longer your castle: how cloud computing transforms the (legal) relationship between individuals and their personal records. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 23(4), 348-371. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlit/eav015 [details]
    • Irion, K., & Valcke, P. (2015). Cultural diversity in the digital age: EU competences, policies and regulations for diverse audio-visual and online content. In E. Psychogiopoulou (Ed.), Cultural governance and the European Union (pp. 75-90). (Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics). Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [details]

    2014

    • Granger, M-P., & Irion, K. (2014). The Court of Justice and The Data Retention Directive in Digital Rights Ireland: Telling Off The EU Legislator and Teaching a Lesson in Privacy and Data Protection. European Law Review, 39(6), 834-850. [details]
    • Irion, K., & Jusić, T. (2014). International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison. Global Media Journal. German Edition, 4(2). [details]
    • Irion, K., & Ledger, M. (2014). Measuring independence: Approaches, limitations and a new ranking tool. In W. Schultz, P. Valcke, & K. Irion (Eds.), The Independence of the Media and Its Regulatory Agencies: Shedding new light on formal and actual independence against the national context (pp. 139-184). (ECREA Book Series). Bristol: Intellect. [details]
    • Irion, K., & Radu, R. (2014). Delegation to Independent Regulatory Authorities in the Media Sector: A Paradigm Shift through the Lens of Regulatory Theory. In W. Schultz, P. Valcke, & K. Irion (Eds.), The Independence of the Media and Its Regulatory Agencies: Shedding new light on formal and actual independence against the national context (pp. 15-54). (ECREA Book Series). Bristol: Intellect. [details]
    • Schultz, W., Valcke, P., & Irion, K. (2014). The Independence of the Media and Its Regulatory Agencies: Shedding new light on formal and actual independence against the national context. (ECREA Book Series). Bristol: Intellect. [details]

    2012

    2011

    2009

    • Irion, K. (2009). Separated Together: The International Telecommunications Union and Civil Society. International Journal of Communications Law and Policy, 13, 95-113.

    2019

    • Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J., Möller, J., Dobber, T., Kruikemeier, S., Irion, K., Stapel, S., ... de Vreese, C. (2019). Online politieke microtargeting: Een zegen of een vloek voor de democratie? Nederlands Juristenblad, 94(10), 662-669. [528]. [details]

    2018

    • Irion, K. (2018). EU Law on Cross-Border Flows of Personal Data in a Global Perspective. Gyeongje Gyuje wa Beob = Journal of Law and Economic Regulation, 11(2), 40-57. [details]
    • Irion, K., & Jusić, T. (2018). International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Theoretical Framework. In K. Irion, & T. Jusić (Eds.), Media Constrained by Context: International Assistance and the Transition to Democratic Media in the Western Balkans (pp. 5-26). Budapest: Central European University Press. [details]
    • Low, L., Vagts, K., Schwartz, P., Irion, K., Stevenson, H., Brunner, L., & Wimmer, K. (2018). Third Annual Detlev F. Vagts Roundtable on Transnational Law: Data Protection in a Global World. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting - American Society of International Law, 112, 219-233. https://doi.org/10.1017/amp.2019.123 [details]

    2016

    • Irion, K. (2016). A special regard: The Court of Justice and the fundamental rights to privacy and data protection. In U. Faber, K. Feldhoff, K. Nebe, K. Schmidt, & U. Waßer (Eds.), Gesellschaftliche Bewegungen - Recht unter Beobachtung und in Aktion: Festschrift für Wolfhard Kohte (pp. 873-890). Baden-Baden: Nomos. [details]
    • van Breda, B., van Eijk, N., Irion, K., McGonagle, T., & van Voorst, S. (2016). Smart TV and data protection. (IRIS special). Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory. [details]

    2015

    • Irion, K. (2015). Accountability unchained: Bulk Data Retention, Preemptive Surveillance, and Transatlantic Data Protection. In M. Rotenberg, J. Horwitz, & J. Scott (Eds.), Privacy in the modern age: the search for solutions (pp. 78-92). New York: The New Press. [details]

    2014

    2013

    • Irion, K. (2013). The Governance of Network and Information Security in the European Union: The European Public-Private Partnership for Resilience (EP3R). In J. Krüger, B. Nickolay, & S. Gaycken (Eds.), The secure information society: ethical, legal and political challenges (pp. 83-116). London: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4763-3_4
    • Irion, K., & Luchetta, G. (2013). Online Personal Data Processing and the EU Data Protection Reform: report of the CEPS Digital Forum, April 2013. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

    2009

    2018

    2017

    • Bartl, M., & Irion, K. (2017). Flows of Personal Data to the Country of Raising Sun. In Making Sense of JEFTA
    • Irion, K. (Author), & Helberger, N. (Author). (2017). The Weeping Angels are back, and they attack our privacy via smart TVs. Web publication/site, Internet Policy Review. Retrieved from https://policyreview.info/articles/news/weeping-angels-are-back-and-they-attack-our-privacy-smart-tvs/451 [details]
    • Irion, K., & Bartl, M. (2017). The Japan EU Economic Partnership Agreement: Flows of Personal Data to the Land of the Rising Sun. IViR, UvA.
    • Irion, K., Iakovleva, S. V., van Hoboken, J. V. J., & Thomson, M. (2017). A Roadmap to Enhancing User Control via Privacy Dashboards. Amsterdam: IViR, UvA.
    • Irion, K., Svensson, S., Ledger, M., & Rsumovic, N. (2017). The independence and functioning of the regulatory authority for electronic media in Serbia: An assessment using the INDIREG methodology. Council of Europe.
    • Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J., van Hoboken, J. V. J., Fahy, R. F., Irion, K., & Rozendaal, M. (2017). An Assessment of the Commission’s Proposal on Privacy and Electronic Communications. Brussels: European Union.

    2016

    • Irion, K., Iakovleva, S., & Bartl, M. (2016). Trade and Privacy: Complicated Bedfellows? How to achieve data protection-proof free trade agreements. Amsterdam: Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam. [details]

    2015

    • Irion, K., Cavaliere, P., & Pavli, D. (2015). Comparative study of best European practices of online content regulation: law and policy regulation, in particular defamation online, in the light of Albanian legislative proposals. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. [details]
    • Irion, K., Granger, M-P., & Eskens, S. J., (2015). Case note: HvJ EU (gevoegde zaken C-293/12 en C-594/12: Digital Rights Ireland/Ierse Ministers en Attorney General), No. 9, Apr 08, 2014. (Mediaforum; Vol. 2015, No. 3). [details]

    2014

    • Irion, K., Ledger, M., Svensson, S., & Fejzulla, E. (2014). The Independence and Functioning of the Audiovisual Media Authority of Albania: an assessment using the INDIREG methodology: study commissioned by the Council of Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. [details]

    2013

    2011

    • Schulz, W., Beeskow, J., Dreyer, S., Sprenger, R., Valcke, P., Stevens, D., ... Suter, T. (2011). INDIREG: Indicators for independence and efficient functioning of audiovisual media services regulatory bodies for the purpose of enforcing the rules in the AVMS Directive (SMART 2009/0001): final report. Hamburg: Hans-Bredow-Institut for Media Research at the University of Hamburg.

    2016

    • Möller, J. E., Trilling, D. C., Helberger, N., Irion, K., & de Vreese, C. H. (2016). Shrinking core? Exploring the differential agenda setting power of traditional and personalized news media. Paper presented at EuroCPR, Brussels, Belgium.

    Media appearance

    • Irion, K. (23-09-2017). Internet privacy in a digital economy [Television] Al Jazeera's Counting the Cost. Internet privacy in a digital economy.
    • Helberger, N. & Irion, K. (22-03-2017). Wetten moeten worden aangepast vanwege smart tv's [Radio] BNR Radio. Wetten moeten worden aangepast vanwege smart tv’s.
    • Irion, K. & Helberger, N. (21-03-2017). Privacy kijkers smart-tv fors onder de maat [Web] De Telegraaf. Privacy kijkers smart-tv fors onder de maat.
    • Irion, K. & Helberger, N. (21-03-2017). Privacy kijkers smart-tv fors onder de maat [Web] Zembla. Privacy kijkers smart-tv fors onder de maat.

    Talk / presentation

    • Irion, K. (speaker) (2-7-2019). Users. Privacy & Art, Arts/Science: Academy Honours Programme for Young Artists and Scientists, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    • Irion, K. (keynote speaker) (6-6-2019). Do we need to regulate social media? Rationales for and viability of regulation of online platforms and social media, Regional Symposium of COMPACT, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (21-3-2019). Geo-governance of data flows, Conferentie Nederland Digitaal , Hilversum, Netherlands.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (30-1-2019). Computers, Privacy & Data Protection Conference, Computers, Privacy & Data Protection Conference, Brussels, Belgium.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (27-11-2018). Big Data and Cybersecurity in China and the EU, Brussels Privacy Hub.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (27-11-2018). The West Wing, Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken, Den Haag.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (16-11-2018). Big Data and Global Trade Law, University of Lucerne.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (15-10-2018). Workshop on the protection of children in a connected world, OECD.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (7-9-2018). EU Law on Cross-Border Flow of Personal Data in a Global Perspective, 17th International Conference on The Law’s Evolution and Response to Data-Driven Innovation<br/>, Honolulu, United States.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (6-4-2018). Third Annual Detlev F. Vagts Roundtable on Transnational Law: Data Protection in Global World, 112 ASIL Annual Meeting , Washington, United States.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (20-2-2018). Workshop Free Flow of Data - A Cornerstone of the Digital Single Market, European Parliament.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (24-1-2018). Computer Privacy and Data Protection 2018 International Conference, Computer Privacy and Data Protection 2018 International Conference, Brussels, Belgium.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (27-9-2017). 6th Asian Privacy Scholars Network Conference, Asian Privacy Scholars Network International Conference, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    • van Eijk, N. A. N. M. (speaker) & Irion, K. (speaker) (27-9-2017). A roadmap to enhancing user control via privacy dashboards, 6th APSN International Conference, Hong Kong.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (25-9-2017). International Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners’ Conferences (IDPPCC), 39th International Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners Conference, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (17-5-2017). National Day of Communication Congress 2017, National Day of Communication Congress 2017, Twente, Netherlands.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (25-1-2017). Computer Privacy and Data Protection Conference 2017 International Conference, CPDP Computers, Data Protection Law and Privacy Conference, Brussels, 2017..
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (15-11-2016). Protection of children online: an update, OECD Working Party on Security and Privacy in the Digital Economy (SPDE).
    • Bartl, M. (speaker) & Irion, K. (speaker) (12-10-2016). Trade and Privacy, Difficult Bedfellows?, European Parliament.
    • Irion, K. (speaker) (6-4-2016). The reform of the e-privacy directive: how to get it right?, Greens/EFA, Brussels.

    2018

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  • Ancillary activities
    • No ancillary activities